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Front. Public Health | doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00045

Control of cattle ticks and tick-borne diseases by acaricide in Southern Province of Zambia: a retrospective evaluation of animal health measures according to current One Health concepts

  • 1Department of Epidemiolgy and Population Health, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • 2Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, Italy
  • 3Scientific veterinary institute, Scientific Veterinary Institute Novi Sad, Serbia
  • 4Department of Veterinary Science, University of Turin, Italy

One health thinking for health interventions is increasingly being used to capture previously unseen stakeholders and impacts across people, animals and the environment. The Network for One Health Evaluation (NEOH) proposes a systems-based framework to quantitatively assess integration and highlight the added value (theory of change) that this approach will bring to a project. This case study will retrospectively evaluate the pioneering use of a One Health (OH) approach during an international collaboration (satellite project to tackle production losses due to tick-borne disease in cattle in Southern Zambia in late1980s). The objective of the evaluation is two-fold: retrospective evaluation the OH-ness of the satellite project, and identification of costs and benefits. Data for evaluation was recovered from publications, project documents and witness interviews. A mixed qualitative and quantitative evaluation was undertaken.

In this case study, a transdisciplinary approach allowed for the identification of a serious public health risk arising from the unexpected reuse of chemical containers by the local public against advice. Should this pioneering project not have been completed then it is assumed this behaviour could have had a large impact on public wellbeing and ultimately reduced regional productivity and compromised welfare. From the economic evaluation, the costs of implementing this OH approach, helping to avoid harm, were small in comparison to overall project costs. The overall OH Index was 0.34. The satellite project demonstrated good OH operations by managing to incorporate the input across multiple dimensions but was slightly weaker on OH infrastructures (OH Ratio = 1.20). These quantitative results can be used in the initial validation and benchmarking of this novel framework. Limitations of the evaluation were mainly a lack of data due to the length of time since project completion and a lack of formal monitoring of programme impact. In future health strategy development and execution, routine monitoring and evaluation from an OH perspective (by utilising the framework proposed by NEOH), could prove valuable or used as a tool for retrospective evaluation of existing policies

Keywords: Public Health, Environmental impact, economic evaluation, OH index, Occupational Health, One Health Ratio

Received: 30 Sep 2017; Accepted: 07 Feb 2018.

Edited by:

Simon R. Rüegg, University of Zurich, Switzerland

Reviewed by:

Serge Morand, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), France
Katharina D. Stärk, Safoso (Switzerland), Switzerland
Katinka De Balogh, Food and Agriculture Organization delle Nazioni Unite, Italy  

Copyright: © 2018 Laing, Aragrande, Canali, Savic and De Meneghi. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Daniele De Meneghi, University of Turin, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Turin, Grugliasco, Turin, I-10095, Italy, daniele.demeneghi@unito.it