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Front. Public Health | doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00050

Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in Coastal Alternative Supplies of Drinking Water and association with Bacillus like Spore-formers

  • 1Centre for Advanced Research in Sciences, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 2Department of Microbiology, Primeasia University, Bangladesh
  • 3Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 4Institute of Statistical Research and Training, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 5Emirates Bird Breeding Center for Conservation (EBBCC), Uzbekistan

The scarcity of hygienic drinking water is a normal phenomenon in the coastal areas of Bangladesh due to the high salinity of ground water. The inhabitants of this locality, therefore, live on alternative supplies of water including rain-fed pond water, rainwater, etc, with persistent complex microbial interactions therein, often contaminated with life-threatening pathogens. Hence, this study was aimed at analyzing the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae (Vc) in the alternative drinking waters of Mathbaria, a coastal sub-district neighboring the Bay of Bengal, the efficacy of Pond sand filter (PSF) and the co-association among Bacillus like Spore formers (Sf) and V. cholerae. V. cholerae presumably entrapped into the membrane filter was enriched in APW medium and was isolated on selective TCBS and TTGA media. They were finally identified by Immuno-chromatographic one step rapid test and serology test. A total of 26% Vc positive samples were obtained out of 100 (Ponds -48, Household- 29, PSFs- 23) where 13% cases were pathogenic (Vc O1) and 13% were non-pathogenic (Vc non- O1/ non- O139). The distribution of Vc as observed was 33%, 26% and 13.8% in waters derived from pond surface, PSF and household reservoirs respectively and for pathogenic type, it was 62.5%, 50% and nil respectively. Though none of the samples was identified with pathogenic Vc O139, the statistics represents a significant and augmentative risk of cholera outbreak in the focused area. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern in this study resembled the trend observed during last few years for Vc. The pond sand filter demonstrated its inability to remove V. cholerae from any of the samples and in addition, the filter itself was evidenced to be the source of pathogens and spores in further contamination and transmission. The development of biofilm in the PSF could be hypothesized as the reservoir in contaminating pathogen free water samples. From the test of homogeneity, the risk levels of alternative water sources were estimated equal regarding V. cholerae. Simultaneously, it was determined statistically that the prevalence of Vc, by no means, is influenced by Bacillus like spore-formers be it for pond surface, household or pond sand filter derived water.

Keywords: Vibrio cholerae, Mathbaria, Pond Sand Filter, Alternative drinking water, Bacillus like spore formers

Received: 22 Oct 2017; Accepted: 09 Feb 2018.

Edited by:

Nur A. Hasan, Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland, United States

Reviewed by:

Ali S. Akanda, University of Rhode Island, United States
Mohammad Tarequl Islam, icddr,b, Bangladesh  

Copyright: © 2018 Asaduzzaman, Mamun, Mian, Akter, Ferdous, Suravi, Datta and Kabir. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Md. Asaduzzaman, University of Dhaka, Centre for Advanced Research in Sciences, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh,