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Front. Public Health | doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00330

Cross-Culture Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the DrInC questionnaire in Tanzanian Swahili

 Duan Zhao1,  Catherine A. Staton2*, Qing He3, Blandina T. Mmbaga4, 5, 6 and  Joao R. Vissoci2
  • 1Global Health Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, China
  • 2Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, United States
  • 3South China University of Technology, China
  • 4Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Tanzania
  • 5Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute (KCRI), Tanzania
  • 6Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Tanzania

To develop Swahili versions of the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC) and evaluate its psychometric properties among a mixed population in Tanzania.
A Swahili version of the DrInC was developed by a panel of bilingual Swahili and English speakers through translation and back-translation. The translated DrInC was administered to a sample of Tanzanian injury patients and a sample of the general population. The validity and reliability of the scale were tested using standard statistical methods.
The translated version of the DrInC questionnaire was found to have outstanding domain coherence and language clarity. The tested scale and subscales have adequate reliability (>0.85). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the five-factor solution by yielding adequate results. DrInC score is statistically significantly correlated with alcohol consumption quantity and the AUDIT score, suggesting that DrInC is able to predict alcohol use as well.
This study presents the first validation of the DrInC questionnaire with injury patients and a general population and the first adaptations of the DrInC questionnaire in the Tanzanian and Swahili setting. DrInC instrument was found to have satisfactory psychometric properties, resulting in a new medical and social research tool in this setting.

Keywords: DrinC, Swahili, Validation, adaptation, psychometric properties

Received: 31 Jul 2018; Accepted: 26 Oct 2018.

Edited by:

Jimmy T. Efird, University of Newcastle, Australia

Reviewed by:

Eugenia M. Bastos, Independent researcher
Keyue Ding, Queen's University, Canada  

Copyright: © 2018 Zhao, Staton, He, Mmbaga and Vissoci. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: MD. Catherine A. Staton, Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, 27708, California, United States,