Impact Factor 2.483 | CiteScore 2
More on impact ›

Review ARTICLE

Front. Public Health, 15 September 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.567184

Seasonality of Respiratory Viral Infections: Will COVID-19 Follow Suit?

  • 1Department of Experimental Pathology, Immunology & Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
  • 2Faculty of Medicine, Center for Infectious Disease Research, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
  • 3Biomedical Research Center and College of Health Sciences-QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

Respiratory viruses, including coronaviruses, are known to have a high incidence of infection during winter, especially in temperate regions. Dry and cold conditions during winter are the major drivers for increased respiratory tract infections as they increase virus stability and transmission and weaken the host immune system. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China in December 2020 and swiftly spread across the globe causing substantial health and economic burdens. Several countries are battling with the second wave of the virus after a devastating first wave of spread, while some are still in the midst of their first wave. It remains unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 will eventually become seasonal or will continue to circulate year-round. In an attempt to address this question, we review the current knowledge regarding the seasonality of respiratory viruses including coronaviruses and the viral and host factors that govern their seasonal pattern. Moreover, we discuss the properties of SARS-CoV-2 and the potential impact of meteorological factors on its spread.

Introduction

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third zoonotic and highly pathogenic coronavirus (CoV) to emerge in the twenty-first century (1). The earliest cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections were reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, the epicenter of the outbreak (1). Since then, the virus has been rapidly spreading across the globe (2).

CoVs are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses that commonly infect birds and mammals, causing a wide range of pathological conditions (3). These viruses undergo frequent mutations and recombinations, yielding new variants that can cross the species barrier (3). Since 1960, seven coronaviruses (CoVs) have been identified to cause infections among humans (4). Human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E, OC43, HKU1, and NL63 are common in the human population and are responsible for about 15–30% of the annual respiratory tract infections (5). They are commonly associated with mild and self-limiting symptoms. Still, severe illnesses, accompanied by lower respiratory tract infection, might also occur, especially in elderly, neonates, and patients with underlying health conditions and risk factors (5).

In the current millennium, three highly pathogenic CoVs, SARS-CoV-1 (6), the Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) (7), and the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 (1), have crossed the species barrier and resulted in human infections. SARS-CoV-1 was first detected in Guangdong Province, China, in November 2002 and then rapidly spread to Hong Kong and 29 other countries, resulting in more than 8000 confirmed cases, including 774 deaths (6, 8). By July 2003, the virus died out throughout the world. MERS-CoV was first detected in Saudi Arabia in 2012, with the camels being the source for human infections (9). The virus caused a total of 2,519 laboratory-confirmed cases, including 866 associated deaths as of the end of January 2020 (7). The majority of cases were detected in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), in addition to one major outbreak in South Korea (10).

SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious virus that is associated with severe pneumonia cases (11). On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced COVID-19 (coronavirus infectious disease) as Public Health Emergency of International Concern after it affected 7,818 people with 170 deaths in 19 countries, including China (12). Since late February, the number of reported COVID-19 cases along with the number of affected countries had sharply increased within a short period, which led the WHO to declare the global COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic (13). Since then, the number of globally confirmed COVID-19 cases has been increasing exponentially, resulting in nearly more than 21 million confirmed cases and 761,000 fatalities as of August 16, 2020 (14).

Different approaches and interventions have been adopted to contain and control the disease spread including travel restrictions (global), partial or complete lockdowns (e.g., China and Singapore) (15, 16) and/or massive testing and isolation of confirmed cases and their contacts (South Korea) (17). The reluctance and delayed implementation of multilayered public health measures in some countries (e.g., Italy, Iran, the UK, Brazil, and the US) resulted in dire outcomes. Despite all the efforts and measures to contain the virus, it is still spreading globally, traversing all climate and environmental settings (2).

Nearly every acute viral disease has a particular seasonal window of occurrence, which differs according to the geographic location and environmental conditions (18). The incidence of respiratory viral infections is highly affected by seasonal changes, especially in temperate climates (19). Extensive research has been done to better understand the seasonality of respiratory viruses. Yet, our knowledge about this phenomenon remains limited. Here we attempt to address the possible impact of weather on SARS-CoV-2 spread, taking into consideration the current knowledge regarding its stability and transmission patterns, and the behavior of other respiratory viruses.

Seasonality of Coronaviruses and Other Respiratory Viruses

Most viral respiratory infections tend to follow seasonal patterns with high incidence during winter in temperate regions and during the rainy season in tropical regions (20). Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have a single annual seasonal peak during winter in the Northern and Southern temperate regions (21). These viruses peak from December to March in the Northern hemisphere, and between June and August in the Southern hemisphere (21). Parainfluenza viruses have a seasonal peak from April to June in the Northern temperate sites and during September in the Southern temperate areas (21). In most of the tropical regions, these viruses occur year-round with increased incidence in rainy seasons (21, 22). Rhinoviruses and adenoviruses, two non-enveloped respiratory viruses, are known to circulate throughout the year in all climatic regions with occasional peaks in autumn and winter for rhinoviruses and in winter and early spring for adenoviruses (23, 24).

Epidemiologic studies of common cold HCoVs suggest that they exhibit a seasonal pattern. In a temperate climate, HCoV infections are primarily detected in winter and spring, with low-level circulation throughout the year (3). The early known types, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E, predominantly circulate during the winter season in temperate climate countries (25, 26). An eight-year study of HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E among young adults in the US reported an equal number of infections with these two types during the winter (December through February) and spring season (March through May) (27). In Belgium, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E were only detected in winter and early spring (28). Several other studies from the United States, Belgium, France, Canada, Japan, Jordan, Italy, and Germany consistently reported winter circulation of the other two HCoVs: NL63 and HKU1 (2836).

On the other hand, tropical/subtropical regions display year-round circulation of HCoVs but with increased activity during certain months. A study conducted in China during 2008–2009 reported that HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 infections, in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections, showed increased activity during summer, fall, and winter (37). In another 7-year epidemiologic study between 2009 and 2016 in China, HCoVs circulated year-round but with the highest incidence during the spring and autumn (38). A study by Chiu et al., in Hong Kong, showed that HCoV-NL63 infections were notable during the spring and summer months of 2002, whereas HCoV-OC43 infections mainly occurred during the fall and winter of 2001 (39). Additionally, a study from Thailand confirmed the previous findings and reported the peak of HCoV-OC43 activity in winter, whereas HCoV-NL63 frequently occurred in autumn (40). In Australia, HCoV-NL63 peaks in mid-winter but was also detected between late-autumn and early-spring (41). Studies from some African countries (South Africa and Ghana) also reported a year-round circulation of HCoVs (42, 43).

Despite its rapid spread to about 30 countries, the SARS-CoV-1 was quickly contained. Thus, it was not possible to assess its seasonality. In the case of MERS-CoV, seven years have passed since its emergence and is still causing intermittent and sporadic infections without obvious seasonality (10). In fact, MERS-CoV has demonstrated low ability to transmit between humans, and most of the outbreaks have occurred mainly in healthcare settings. In camels, the virus seems to peak between late-winter and early-summer (44). This coincides with a spike in zoonotic transmission between April and July (45). A 5-year epidemiologic study, conducted between 2012 and 2017, demonstrated that MERS-CoV has the highest global seasonal occurrence during June with some observed seasonal variations (46). A case-cross-over analysis of the associations between primary human MERS cases and weather conditions found that the primary MERS infections are more likely to occur in cold and dry conditions (47).

In summary, most respiratory viruses follow a seasonal pattern. However, some factors might increase the incidence of these infections, even in seasons with low circulation. For instance, an increased incidence of respiratory infections occurs among pilgrims during the Hajj Season (48). The mass crowding in a limited space, in addition to the close contact between pilgrims, increases the risk of viral importation and transmission, particularly the respiratory ones (49) Rhinovirus, influenza virus, and the common cold HCoVs (mainly HCoV-229E) are usually the most commonly detected viruses during the Hajj (48).

Drivers of Seasonality of Respiratory Viruses

Seasonality of viral respiratory infections can be primarily attributed to two main factors: the environmental and weather effects on the virus and the host, as well as the host's behavior and physiology (20). Studies on respiratory viruses, including influenza viruses, suggest that cold weather and low relative humidity are highly associated with the onset of respiratory infections in the temperate regions (50, 51). This was mainly attributed to the effect of temperature and humidity on the stability and transmissibility of the viral particles, in addition to the effect on the host airway immune response (19).

Effect of Meteorological Factors on the Stability and Transmission of Respiratory Viruses

A study by Price et al. demonstrated that unlike the non-enveloped viruses that circulate throughout the year, enveloped viruses, including influenza and RSV, tend to be more seasonal, with a clear preference for colder temperatures (20). Harper et al. found that the optimal airborne influenza survival is at low temperatures and the survival decreases as the temperature increases (52). Low temperatures seem to enhance the lipid ordering of the viral envelope and improve influenza virus stability (53). This enhances the virus's ability to stay protected outside the body for a longer period of time (54). Further, a systematic review examined the factors that affect influenza survival on different metrics revealed that longer virus survival is favored at lower temperatures (55).

Besides their effect on stability, low temperature and relative humidity are also shown to enhance aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses (52). It was proposed that influenza virus transmission occurs mostly by aerosols in temperate regions and by contact in tropical sites (56). Using the guinea pig model, Lowen et al. showed that influenza virus aerosol transmission is suppressed by high humidity and warm temperature, but enhanced under cold and dry conditions (57). Low relative humidity induces evaporation of water from the exhaled bio-aerosols, leading to the formation of droplet nuclei (1–5 μm in size) (58). The extent of infectious viral particles survival in dried aerosols is not known; however, it is speculated that these nuclei can stay suspended in the air for prolonged periods (58). The opposite happens at high relative humidity, whereby the respiratory droplets increase in size by taking on water from the surrounding and quickly settle out of the air, thus, decrease aerosol transmission of the virus (58).

On the other hand, the transmission of influenza viruses by contact was shown to be efficient even at high humidity (54). High humidity enhances the indirect virus transmission by increasing the virus particle's stability, inside droplets, on surfaces (54). A study by Yang et al. showed that humidity promotes the survival of influenza A virus by controlling the extent of evaporation in these virus-containing droplets, which affect the solute concentrations and thus, viral stability (59). This partially explains the year-round occurrence of viral respiratory infections in tropical regions, particularly during rainy seasons when humidity is high.

In addition, it is well-known that solar UV radiation (UV) of all wavelengths effectively inactivate RNA and DNA viruses to varying extents (60, 61). Three types of UV radiations, UVA, UVB, and UVC, exist in nature, with UVC, having the shortest wavelength range, being the most effective against viruses (62). However, only UVA and UVB radiations are found at the ground-level sunlight, and these are known to have lower efficiency against viruses (60). The low incidence of respiratory infections during summer in temperate regions can also be attributed to the solar inactivation of viruses on the outdoor surfaces contaminated with respiratory secretions, thus decreasing the possibility of fomite transmission.

Effect of Meteorological Factors on Host's Susceptibility to Infection

Meteorological or environmental conditions were also shown to have a direct effect on the host's susceptibility to infections (63). The role of cold weather in weakening the immune response is controversial (63, 64). However, many studies indicated that cold and dry environments have an immunosuppressive effect on the host, and thereby increase the risk of acquiring infections (6567). Increased exposure to cold air was shown to induce a temperature-related reduction in lung function in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (68). Seasonal changes in temperature were also shown to affect the local immune response in the nose (66). It was shown that the antiviral defense response against rhinovirus infection in cultured mouse airway cells is reduced at low temperature (69). The cooling of the nasal airway by the inhaled cold air induces a decrease in the temperature of the respiratory epithelium, and compromise both the mucociliary clearance (MCC) in the nose and the local immune response in the upper airway (66).

The nasal respiratory epithelium is made up of ciliated cells covered with an airway surface layer comprised of a mucus layer that catches inhaled particles and low viscosity pericilliary layer that moisturizes the surfaces and enable ciliary beating (70). MCC is a key mechanism required for getting rid of particles, including infectious agents, stuck on the surface of the respiratory epithelium (70). Production of thin mucosal layer and beating of cilia at a specific frequency are considered key factors for efficient MCC (66). MCC was shown to be affected by temperature and relative humidity. A recent study demonstrated that MCC and epithelial cellular repair in influenza virus-infected cells is reduced at a low relative humidity (67). Using a climate chamber for cell culture, a study showed that a temperature of 25°C and RH of 40% induced more production of mucin compared to 37°C and 80% RH (71). In addition, it was shown that tracheal and nasal mucociliary beat frequency decreases as the temperature falls below 20°C and totally ceases at 5°C (72). These studies indicate that low temperature and low humidity in the nasal airway compromise the MCC by increasing mucin secretion and reducing mucociliary beat frequency (67, 71, 73). Moreover, a study done on guinea pigs revealed that breathing dry air can disrupt cilia, damage epithelial cells, and induce local inflammation of the trachea (74). More importantly, the phagocytic activity of macrophages, a key non-specific immune response mechanism against viruses, was found to be reduced both in vivo and in vitro at low temperatures (75).

It has also been postulated that shortened exposure to sunlight during the winter affects vitamin D levels, a key modulator for both innate and adaptive immune responses, which increases the susceptibility to respiratory infections during winter (76, 77). A systematic review assessing the relation between vitamin D and respiratory tract infections found that vitamin D supplementation reduces the incidence of respiratory tract infections (78). The high incidence of influenza was also correlated with the seasonal decrease in vitamin D levels (79). A recent observational study of 212 patients from three South Asian hospitals, found a positive association between vitamin D levels and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients (80).

Modes of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission

The respiratory transmission mode of SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood. However, the virus is assumed to have a transmission pattern similar to that of the influenza virus (81). These modes include transmission through direct or indirect contact with infected individuals. Transmission of the virus can occur via fomites or direct contact with an infected person or through respiratory droplets released during sneezing, coughing, or talking (82). Studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 can stay viable on surfaces for hours or even days especially in healthcare facilities where the concentration of the virus released by the patients is relatively high (8284). The survival of the virus on these surfaces depends on relative humidity and temperature and on the nature of the contaminated surfaces (85, 86).

Although airborne virus transmission has not yet been confirmed in humans, studies suggest that the occurrence of aerosol transmission cannot be excluded, especially in closed venues (82, 87). Airborne transmission occurs when the aerosols (droplet nuclei <5 μm) containing infectious viral particles spread in air over a long distance and remain suspended for a long time (82). These aerosols are produced from evaporation of large respiratory droplets or released from the infected individuals by coughing, sneezing, talking, or exhaling. The aerosols can be breathed by individuals and cause infection if enough infectious dose of the virus is present or upon extended exposure (82). A study by Van Dormalan et al. found that SARS-CoV-2 virus particles remained infectious for 3 h in experimentally generated virus-containing aerosols that mimic the human-generated ones (83). Several studies reported detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the air samples collected from different areas inside the hospitals such as patients' toilet areas, medical staff areas, and public areas prone to crowding (83, 88, 89). Recently, it was shown that infectious SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in air samples collected 2–4.8 m away from hospitalized COVID-19 patients, supporting the possibility of airborne transmission at least in confined environments (90).

The possibility of transmission via the fecal-oral or fecal-respiratory route has been also considered for COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 RNA and viable virus were also found in urine and feces of infected patients (9195). However, no evidence on virus transmission through feces or urine exists (9195). Some studies also reported the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA but not infectious virus in blood samples of COVID-19 patients and breast milk of infected mothers (91, 96, 97). The absence of viable virus in blood and breast milk excludes the possibility of virus transmission through these routes (91, 96, 97).

Controlling the transmission of respiratory viruses is very challenging on its own, but is even more complicated in the case of SARS-CoV-2 due to the well-demonstrated role of asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic carriers (98101). A meta-analysis of nine studies from six countries (including 21,035 close contacts of 843 COVID-19 cases) estimated the proportion of asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers at 15% (95% CI 12–18%). The transmission rates ranged from 0 to 2.2% for aymptomatic cases compared to 0.8–15.4% among symptomatic ones (102). Lau et al. estimated the presymptomatic transmission proportion to be 44% (95% CI, 30–57%) with infectiousness peaking between 2 days before and 1 day after symptoms onset (103). While a study carried out in Singapore found that around 6.4 % of the secondary infections are caused by the pre-symptomatic patients (104).

Role of Meteorological Factors During SARS-CoV-2 Transmission

The seasonal differences between the Southern and Northern hemispheres might have played a role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Early in the pandemic, Northern hemisphere countries with cold climates appeared to be the most vulnerable to COVID-19 transmission, while tropical regions and those in the Southern hemisphere seemed to be the least affected. Initial studies suggested a potential role for meterological factors in the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Sajadi et al. found more virus spread in areas with an average temperature of 5–11°C and absolute humidity of 4–7 g/m3, suggesting a potentially seasonal behavior (105). Another study found that around 90% of the cases were reported in countries with temperatures maxima below 17°C and absolute humidity of 3–9 g/m3. The study suggested that the summer season might reduce the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in those countries as the temperatures rise (106). Another study concluded that SARS-CoV-2 transmits more easily in countries with relatively cool conditions and that transmission is reduced in sites with high temperatures and high relative humidity (107). Chen et al. reported that the optimal temperature for virus spread was found to be at 8°C and humidity between 60 and 90%. The authors suggested that the weather plays a key role in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 around the world (108).

The association between the daily incidence of COVID-19 cases and climatic conditions in mainland China was examined between January 20 and February 29, 2020. Using modified susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (M-SEIR) model, Shi et al. found that COVID-19 transmission rate decreased at higher temperatures (109). However, another study conducted during the same period in China concluded that the increase in humidity and temperature alone would not reduce the virus spread if the public health interventions have not been strictly implemented (110). Similarly, a prospective cohort study done on 144 different areas other than China, South Korea, Iran, and Italy, found that it is the strict interventions that are strongly associated with the decrease in virus transmission but not latitude and temperature (111). Nonetheless, the early lockdowns in some countries and variable public interventions taken by various countries hindered the ability of scientists to study the association between climate and virus transmission. The aforementioned studies are also being challenged by the fact that many countries in the Northern hemisphere are witnessing a second wave of COVID-19 despite entering the summer season.

Conclusion: Will COVID-19 Become Seasonal?

The basic reproduction number (R0) is the number of secondary cases resulting from a primary case in a susceptible population and is an important indicator to predict the spread of a virus. For a virus to follow a seasonal pattern, and thus wane in summer, its effective R0 should drop below 1 (112). For SARS-CoV, the R0 is estimated between 2 and 3 (112) and in some estimates as high as 5.7 (113). As discussed above, several factors in the summer might reduce the effective R0 of respiratory viruses including the effect of warm tempertures and humidity on the stability of the virus and susceptibility of the host as well as behavior of the population such as indoor crowding. For seasonal influenza virus, its R0 is estimated to be 1.27 (114). Therefore, these aforementioned factors could easily drop the effective R0 to below 1 in summer halting the virus spread and resulting in the observed seasonal pattern of flu. The warm temperatures and humidity of the summer might impact the host immune response and thus its susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV-2 similar to its effect on influenza (66). However, other factors including: (1) a much higher R0, (2) higher stability of SARS-CoV-2 (it can survive for up to 72 h on hard surfaces at temperatures between 21 and 23°C and in relative humidity of 40%) (83), and (3) a largely immunologically naïve population against SARS-CoV-2 compared to influenza make it unlikely for the R0 to drop in summer enough to halt the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, without public health interventions, SARS-CoV-2 will continue to spread in summer as witnessed in many countries around the world. Nonetheless, as the population herd immunity is attained through natural infections and/or vaccinations then the effective R0 is expected to drop substantially making the virus more prone to seasonal fluctuations.

Author Contributions

HZ conceived the review idea and supervised the writing. AA developed the review outline and coordinated the drafting of the manuscript. AA, MA, MK, and GH wrote the manuscript. HY critically reviewed the manuscript. All authors revised and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

References

1. Zhou P, Yang X, Wang X-G, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature. (2020) 579:270–3. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

2. World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Situation Reports. (2020) Available online at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports (accessed May 13, 2020).

Google Scholar

3. Perlman S, McIntosh K. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ editors. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier (2015) p. 2073–80.

Google Scholar

4. Docea AO, Tsatsakis A, Albulescu D, Cristea O, Zlatian O, Vinceti M, et al. A new threat from an old enemy: re-emergence of coronavirus (review). Int J Mol Med. (2020) 45:1631–43. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2020.4555

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

5. Fehr AR, Perlman S. Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol. (2015) 1282:1–23. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2438-7_1

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

6. World Health Organization. World Health Organization | SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome). WHO (2004). Available online at: https://www.who.int/ith/diseases/sars/en/ (accessed March 24, 2020).

7. World Health Organization. World Health Organization EMRO | MERS Outbreaks | MERS-CoV | Health Topics. (2020) Available online at: http://www.emro.who.int/health-topics/mers-cov/mers-outbreaks.html (accessed March 26, 2020).

8. Peiris JSM, Yuen KY, Osterhaus ADME, Stöhr K. The severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. (2003) 349:2431–41. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra032498

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

9. Zaki AM, van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus ADME, Fouchier RAM. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med. (2012) 367:1814–20. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1211721

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

10. Memish ZA, Perlman S, Van Kerkhove MD, Zumla A. Middle east respiratory syndrome. Lancet. (2020) 395:1063–77. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)33221-0

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

11. World Health Organization. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). (2020) Available online at: https://www.who.int/publications-detail/report-of-the-who-china-joint-mission-on-coronavirus-disease-2019-(covid-19) (accessed May 28, 2020).

PubMed Abstract

12. World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Situation Report-10. (2020) Available online at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports (accessed May 13, 2020).

Google Scholar

13. World Health Organization. WHO Announces COVID-19 Outbreak a Pandemic. (2020) Available online at: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid-19/news/news/2020/3/who-announces-covid-19-outbreak-a-pandemic (accessed March 31, 2020).

14. World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Situation Report-209. (2020) Available online at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports (accessed May 28, 2020).

Google Scholar

15. AlTakarli NS. China's response to the COVID-19 outbreak: a model for epidemic preparedness and management. DMJ. (2020) 3:44–9. doi: 10.1159/000508448

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

16. Dickens BL, Koo JR, Lim JT, Park M, Quaye S, Sun H, et al. Modelling lockdown and exit strategies for COVID-19 in Singapore. Lancet Region Health Western Pac. (2020) 1:100004. doi: 10.1016/j.lanwpc.2020.100004

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

17. Kim J-H, An Julia A-R, Min P-k, Bitton A, Gawande AA. How South Korea responded to the Covid-19 outbreak in Daegu. NEJM Catalyst. (2020) 1. doi: 10.1056/CAT.20.0159

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

18. Martinez ME. The calendar of epidemics: seasonal cycles of infectious diseases. PLoS Pathog. (2018) 14:e1007327. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007327

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

19. Moriyama M, Hugentobler WJ, Iwasaki A. Seasonality of respiratory viral infections. Annu Rev Virol. (2020) 7. doi: 10.1146/annurev-virology-012420-022445

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

20. Price RHM, Graham C, Ramalingam S. Association between viral seasonality and meteorological factors. Sci Rep. (2019) 9:1–11. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-37481-y

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

21. Lam TT, Tang JW, Lai FY, Zaraket H, Dbaibo G, Bialasiewicz S, et al. Comparative global epidemiology of influenza, respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza viruses, 2010–2015. J Infect. (2019) 79:373–82. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.07.008

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

22. Shek LP-C, Lee B-W. Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory tract virus infections in the tropics. Paediatr Respir Rev. (2003) 4:105–11. doi: 10.1016/s1526-0542(03)00024-1

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

23. Jacobs SE, Lamson DM, George KS, Walsh TJ. Human rhinoviruses. Clin Microbiol Rev. (2013) 26:135–62. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00077-12

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

24. Dela Cruz CS, Pasnick S, Gross JE, Keller J, Carlos WG, Cao B, et al. Adenovirus infection and outbreaks: what you need to know. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. (2019) 199:P13–4. doi: 10.1164/rccm.1997P13

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

25. Isaacs D, Flowers D, Clarke JR, Valman HB, MacNaughton MR. Epidemiology of coronavirus respiratory infections. Arch Dis Child. (1983) 58:500–3.

PubMed Abstract | Google Scholar

26. Kaye HS, Marsh HB, Dowdle WR. Seroepidemiologic survey of coronavirus (strain OC 43) related infections in a children's population. Am J Epidemiol. (1971) 94:43–9. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a121293

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

27. Hendley JO, Fishburne HB, Gwaltney JM. Coronavirus infections in working adults. Eight-year study with 229 E and OC 43. Am Rev Respir Dis. (1972) 105:805–11. doi: 10.1164/arrd.1972.105.5.805

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

28. Moës E, Vijgen L, Keyaerts E, Zlateva K, Li S, Maes P, et al. A novel pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay: frequent detection of human coronavirus NL63 in children hospitalized with respiratory tract infections in Belgium. BMC Infect Dis. (2005) 5:6. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-5-6

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

29. Vabret A, Mourez T, Dina J, van der Hoek L, Gouarin S, Petitjean J, et al. Human coronavirus NL63, France. Emerg Infect Dis. (2005) 11:1225–9. doi: 10.3201/eid1108.050110

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

30. Suzuki A, Okamoto M, Ohmi A, Watanabe O, Miyabayashi S, Nishimura H. Detection of human coronavirus-NL63 in children in Japan. Pediatr Infect Dis J. (2005) 24:645–6. doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000168846.71517.ee

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

31. Ebihara T, Endo R, Ma X, Ishiguro N, Kikuta H. Detection of human coronavirus NL63 in young children with bronchiolitis. J Med Virol. (2005) 75:463–5. doi: 10.1002/jmv.20289

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

32. Bastien N, Anderson K, Hart L, Van Caeseele P, Brandt K, Milley D, et al. Human coronavirus NL63 infection in Canada. J Infect Dis. (2005) 191:503–6. doi: 10.1086/426869

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

33. van der Hoek L, Sure K, Ihorst G, Stang A, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, et al. Croup is associated with the novel coronavirus NL63. PLoS Med. (2005) 2:e240. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020240

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

34. Pierangeli A, Gentile M, Di Marco P, Pagnotti P, Scagnolari C, Trombetti S, et al. Detection and typing by molecular techniques of respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute respiratory infection in Rome, Italy. J Med Virol. (2007) 79:463–8. doi: 10.1002/jmv.20832

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

35. Kaplan NM, Dove W, Abd-Eldayem SA, Abu-Zeid AF, Shamoon HE, Hart CA. Molecular epidemiology and disease severity of respiratory syncytial virus in relation to other potential pathogens in children hospitalized with acute respiratory infection in Jordan. J Med Virol. (2008) 80:168–74. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21067

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

36. Esper F, Weibel C, Ferguson D, Landry ML, Kahn JS. Coronavirus HKU1 Infection in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. (2006) 12:775–9. doi: 10.3201/eid1205.051316

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

37. Cui L-J, Zhang C, Zhang T, Lu R-J, Xie Z-D, Zhang L-L, et al. Human coronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Beijing, China. Adv Virol. (2011) 2011:129134. doi: 10.1155/2011/129134

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

38. Zeng Z-Q, Chen D-H, Tan W-P, Qiu S-Y, Xu D, Liang H-X, et al. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human coronaviruses OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU1: a study of hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection in Guangzhou, China. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. (2018) 37:363–9. doi: 10.1007/s10096-017-3144-z

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

39. Chiu SS, Chan KH, Chu KW, Kwan SW, Guan Y, Poon LLM, et al. Human coronavirus NL63 infection and other coronavirus infections in children hospitalized with acute respiratory disease in Hong Kong, China. Clin Infect Dis. (2005) 40:1721–9. doi: 10.1086/430301

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

40. Dare RK, Fry AM, Chittaganpitch M, Sawanpanyalert P, Olsen SJ, Erdman DD. Human coronavirus infections in rural Thailand: a comprehensive study using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. J Infect Dis. (2007) 196:1321–28. doi: 10.1086/521308

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

41. Arden KE, Nissen MD, Sloots TP, Mackay IM. New human coronavirus, HCoV-NL63, associated with severe lower respiratory tract disease in Australia. J Med Virol. (2005) 75:455–62. doi: 10.1002/jmv.20288

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

42. Smuts H. Human coronavirus NL63 infections in infants hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infections in South Africa. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. (2008) 2:135–8. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2008.00049.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

43. Owusu M, Annan A, Corman VM, Larbi R, Anti P, Drexler JF, et al. Human coronaviruses associated with upper respiratory tract infections in three rural areas of Ghana. PLoS ONE. (2014) 9:e99782. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099782

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

44. Killerby ME, Biggs HM, Midgley CM, Gerber SI, Watson JT. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus transmission. Emerg Infect Dis J. (2020) 26:191–8. doi: 10.3201/eid2602.190697

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

45. Dudas G, Carvalho LM, Rambaut A, Bedford T. MERS-CoV spillover at the camel-human interface. eLife. (2018) 7:e31257. doi: 10.7554/eLife.31257

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

46. Nassar MS, Bakhrebah MA, Meo SA, Alsuabeyl MS, Zaher WA. Global seasonal occurrence of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. (2018) 22:3913–8. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_201806_15276

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

47. Gardner EG, Kelton D, Poljak Z, Van Kerkhove M, von Dobschuetz S, Greer AL. A case-crossover analysis of the impact of weather on primary cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome. BMC Infect Dis. (2019) 19:113. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3729-5

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

48. Gautret P, Benkouiten S, Al-Tawfiq JA, Memish ZA. Hajj-associated viral respiratory infections: a systematic review. Travel Med Infect Dis. (2016) 14:92. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2015.12.008

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

49. Ahmed QA, Arabi YM, Memish ZA. Health risks at the Hajj. Lancet. (2006) 367:1008–15. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68429-8

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

50. Davis RE, Dougherty E, McArthur C, Huang QS, Baker MG. Cold, dry air is associated with influenza and pneumonia mortality in Auckland, New Zealand. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. (2016) 10:310–3. doi: 10.1111/irv.12369

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

51. Mäkinen TM, Juvonen R, Jokelainen J, Harju TH, Peitso A, Bloigu A, et al. Cold temperature and low humidity are associated with increased occurrence of respiratory tract infections. Respir Med. (2009) 103:456–62. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2008.09.011

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

52. Harper GJ. Airborne micro-organisms: survival tests with four viruses. J Hyg. (1961) 59:479–86. doi: 10.1017/s0022172400039176

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

53. Polozov IV, Bezrukov L, Gawrisch K, Zimmerberg J. Progressive ordering with decreasing temperature of the phospholipids of influenza virus. Nat Chem Biol. (2008) 4:248–55. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.77

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

54. Paynter S. Humidity and respiratory virus transmission in tropical and temperate settings. Epidemiol Infect. (2015) 143:1110–8. doi: 10.1017/S0950268814002702

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

55. Irwin CK, Yoon KJ, Wang C, Hoff SJ, Zimmerman JJ, Denagamage T, et al. Using the systematic review methodology to evaluate factors that influence the persistence of influenza virus in environmental matrices. Appl Environ Microbiol. (2011) 77:1049–60. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02733-09

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

56. Lowen A, Palese P. Transmission of influenza virus in temperate zones is predominantly by aerosol, in the tropics by contact. PLoS Curr. (2009) 1:RRN1002. doi: 10.1371/currents.RRN1002

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

57. Lowen AC, Mubareka S, Steel J, Palese P. Influenza virus transmission is dependent on relative humidity and temperature. PLoS Pathog. (2007) 3:1470–6. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030151

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

58. Tellier R. Review of aerosol transmission of influenza A virus. Emerg Infect Dis. (2006) 12:1657–62. doi: 10.3201/eid1211.060426

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

59. Yang W, Elankumaran S, Marr LC. Relationship between humidity and influenza A viability in droplets and implications for influenza's seasonality. PLoS ONE. (2012) 7:e46789. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046789

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

60. Lytle CD, Sagripanti J-L. Predicted inactivation of viruses of relevance to biodefense by solar radiation. J Virol. (2005) 79:14244–52. doi: 10.1128/JVI.79.22.14244-14252.2005

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

61. Rauth AM. The physical state of viral nucleic acid and the sensitivity of viruses to ultraviolet light. Biophys J. (1965) 5:257–73. doi: 10.1016/s0006-3495(65)86715-7

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

62. Darnell MER, Taylor DR. Evaluation of inactivation methods for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in noncellular blood products. Transfusion. (2006) 46:1770–7. doi: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2006.00976.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

63. Eccles R, Wilkinson JE. Exposure to cold and acute upper respiratory tract infection. Rhinology. (2015) 53:99–106. doi: 10.4193/Rhin14.239

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

64. Castellani JW, Brenner MIK, Rhind SG. Cold exposure: human immune responses and intracellular cytokine expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc. (2002) 34:2013–20. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200212000-00023

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

65. Shephard RJ, Shek PN. Cold exposure and immune function. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. (1998) 76:828–36. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-76-9-828

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

66. Eccles R. An explanation for the seasonality of acute upper respiratory tract viral infections. Acta Otolaryngol. (2002) 122:183–91. doi: 10.1080/00016480252814207

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

67. Kudo E, Song E, Yockey L, Rakib T, Wong P, Homer R, et al. Low ambient humidity impairs barrier function and innate resistance against influenza infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. (2019) 116:201902840. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1902840116

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

68. Donaldson GC, Seemungal T, Jeffries DJ, Wedzicha JA. Effect of temperature on lung function and symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. (1999) 13:844–9. doi: 10.1034/j.1399-3003.1999.13d25.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

69. Foxman EF, Storer JA, Fitzgerald ME, Wasik BR, Hou L, Zhao H, et al. Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in mouse airway cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. (2015) 112:827–32. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1411030112

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

70. Bustamante-Marin XM, Ostrowski LE. Cilia and mucociliary clearance. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. (2017) 9:a028241. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a028241

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

71. Even-Tzur N, Zaretsky U, Grinberg O, Davidovich T, Kloog Y, Wolf M, et al. Climate chamber for environmentally controlled laboratory airflow experiments. Technol Health Care. (2010) 18:157–63. doi: 10.3233/THC-2010-0577

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

72. Baetjer AM. Effect of ambient temperature and vapor pressure on cilia-mucus clearance rate. J Appl Physiol. (1967) 23:498–504. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1967.23.4.498

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

73. Clary-Meinesz CF, Cosson J, Huitorel P, Blaive B. Temperature effect on the ciliary beat frequency of human nasal and tracheal ciliated cells. Biol Cell. (1992) 76:335–8. doi: 10.1016/0248-4900(92)90436-5

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

74. Barbet JP, Chauveau M, Labbé S, Lockhart A. Breathing dry air causes acute epithelial damage and inflammation of the guinea pig trachea. J Appl Physiol. (1988) 64:1851–7. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.5.1851

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

75. Salman H, Bergman M, Bessler H, Alexandrova S, Beilin B, Djaldetti M. Hypothermia affects the phagocytic activity of rat peritoneal macrophages. Acta Physiol Scand. (2000) 168:431–6. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2000.00686.x

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

76. Schwalfenberg GK. A review of the critical role of vitamin D in the functioning of the immune system and the clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2011) 55:96–108. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201000174

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

77. Berry DJ, Hesketh K, Power C, Hyppönen E. Vitamin D status has a linear association with seasonal infections and lung function in British adults. Br J Nutr. (2011) 106:1433–40. doi: 10.1017/S0007114511001991

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

78. Martineau AR, Jolliffe DA, Hooper RL, Greenberg L, Aloia JF, Bergman P, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ. (2017) 356:i6583. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i6583

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

79. Moan J, Dahlback A, Ma L, Juzeniene A. Influenza, solar radiation and vitamin D. Dermatoendocrinol. (2009) 1:307–9. doi: 10.4161/derm.1.6.11357

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

80. Alipio M. Vitamin D Supplementation Could Possibly Improve Clinical Outcomes of Patients Infected With Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19). Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network (2020). Available online at: https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=3571484 (accessed May 28, 2020).

Google Scholar

81. Shaman J, Kohn M. Absolute humidity modulates influenza survival, transmission, and seasonality. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. (2009) 106:3243–8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0806852106

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

82. World Health Organization. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Implications for Infection Prevention Precautions. Available online at: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/transmission-of-sars-cov-2-implications-for-infection-prevention-precautions (accessed August 8, 2020).

83. van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med. (2020) 382:1564–7. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

84. Chia PY, Coleman KK, Tan YK, Ong SWX, Gum M, Lau SK, et al. Detection of air and surface contamination by SARS-CoV-2 in hospital rooms of infected patients. Nat Commun. (2020) 11:2800. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16670-2

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text

85. Matson MJ, Yinda CK, Seifert SN, Bushmaker T, Fischer RJ, Doremalen N van, et al. Early release - effect of environmental conditions on SARS-CoV-2 stability in human nasal mucus and sputum. Emerg Infect Dis J. (2020) 26:2276–8. doi: 10.3201/eid2609.202267

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

86. Pastorino B, Touret F, Gilles M, de Lamballerie X, Charrel RN. Prolonged Infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in Fomites. Emerg Infect Dis. (2020) 26:2256–7. doi: 10.3201/eid2609.201788

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

87. Morawska L, Cao J. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2: the world should face the reality. Environ Int. (2020) 139:105730. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105730

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

88. Liu Y, Ning Z, Chen Y, Guo M, Liu Y, Gali NK, et al. Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals. Nature. (2020) 582:1–6. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2271-3

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

89. Santarpia JL, Rivera DN, Herrera VL, Morwitzer MJ, Creager HM, Santarpia GW, et al. Aerosol and surface contamination of SARS-CoV-2 observed in quarantine and isolation care. Sci Rep. (2020) 10:12732. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-69286-3

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

90. Lednicky JA, Lauzardo M, Fan ZH, Jutla AS, Tilly TB, Gangwar M, et al. Viable SARS-CoV-2 in the air of a hospital room with COVID-19 patients. medRxiv. (2020). doi: 10.1101/2020.08.03.20167395

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

91. Wang W, Xu Y, Gao R, Lu R, Han K, Wu G, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens. JAMA. (2020) 323:1843–4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.3786

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

92. Wu Y, Guo C, Tang L, Hong Z, Zhou J, Dong X, et al. Prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in faecal samples. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. (2020) 5:434–5. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30083-2

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

93. Zheng S, Fan J, Yu F, Feng B, Lou B, Zou Q, et al. Viral load dynamics and disease severity in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Zhejiang province, China, January-March 2020: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. (2020) 369:m1443. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1443

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

94. Sun J, Zhu A, Li H, Zheng K, Zhuang Z, Chen Z, et al. Isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from urine of a COVID-19 patient. Emerg Microbes Infect. (2020) 9:991–3. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1760144

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

95. Xiao F, Sun J, Xu Y, Li F, Huang X, Li H, et al. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 in Feces of patient with severe COVID-19. Emerg Infect Dis. (2020) 26:1920–2. doi: 10.3201/eid2608.200681

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

96. Chang L, Zhao L, Gong H, Wang L, Wang L. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA detected in blood donations. Emerg Infect Dis. (2020) 26:1631–3. doi: 10.3201/eid2607.200839

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

97. World Health Organization. Breastfeeding and COVID-19. Available online at: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/breastfeeding-and-covid-19 (accessed August 9, 2020).

98. Mizumoto K, Kagaya K, Zarebski A, Chowell G. Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020. Euro Surveill. (2020) 25:2000180. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

99. Arons MM, Hatfield KM, Reddy SC, Kimball A, James A, Jacobs JR, et al. Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections and transmission in a skilled nursing facility. N Engl J Med. (2020) 382:2081–90. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2008457

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

100. Tong Z-D, Tang A, Li K-F, Li P, Wang H-L, Yi J-P, et al. Potential presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Zhejiang Province, China. Emerg Infect Dis J. (2020) 26:1052–4. doi: 10.3201/eid2605.200198

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

101. Savvides C, Siegel R. Asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review. medRxiv. [Preprint]. (2020). doi: 10.1101/2020.06.11.20129072

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

102. Byambasuren O, Cardona M, Bell K, Clark J, McLaws M-L, Glasziou P. Estimating the extent of asymptomatic COVID-19 and its potential for community transmission: systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. [Preprint]. (2020). doi: 10.1101/2020.05.10.20097543

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

103. He X, Lau EHY, Wu P, Deng X, Wang J, Hao X, et al. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nat Med. (2020) 26:672–5. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0869-5

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

104. Wei WE. Presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2—Singapore, January 23–March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. (2020) 69:411–5. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6914e1

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

105. Sajadi M, Habibzadeh P, Vintzileos A, Shokouhi S, Miralles-Wilhelm F, Amoroso A. Temperature and latitude analysis to predict potential spread and seasonality for COVID-19. SSRN Electr J. (2020). doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3550308

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

106. Bukhari Q, Jameel Y. Will Coronavirus Pandemic Diminish by Summer? Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network (2020).

Google Scholar

107. Wang J, Tang K, Feng K, Lv W. High temperature and high humidity reduce the transmission of COVID-19. arXiv. (2020). doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3551767

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

108. Chen B, Liang H, Yuan X, Hu Y, Xu M, Zhao Y, et al. Roles of meteorological conditions in COVID-19 transmission on a worldwide scale. medRxiv. [Preprint]. (2020). doi: 10.1101/2020.03.16.20037168

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

109. Shi P, Dong Y, Yan H, Li X, Zhao C, Liu W, et al. The impact of temperature and absolute humidity on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak - evidence from China. medRxiv. [Preprint]. (2020). doi: 10.1101/2020.03.22.20038919

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

110. Luo W, Majumder M, Liu D, Poirier C, Mandl K, Lipsitch M, et al. The role of absolute humidity on transmission rates of the COVID-19 outbreak. medRxiv. [Preprint]. (2020). doi: 10.1101/2020.02.12.20022467

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

111. Jüni P, Rothenbühler M, Bobos P, Thorpe KE, Costa BR da, Fisman DN, et al. Impact of climate and public health interventions on the COVID-19 pandemic: a prospective cohort study. CMAJ. (2020) 192:E566–73. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.200920

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

112. Petersen E, Koopmans M, Go U, Hamer DH, Petrosillo N, Castelli F, et al. Comparing SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and influenza pandemics. Lancet Infect Dis. (2020) 20:E238–44. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30484-9

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

113. Sanche S, Lin YT, Xu C, Romero-Severson E, Hengartner N, Ke R. High contagiousness and rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Emerg Infect Dis J. (2020) 7:1470–7. doi: 10.3201/eid2607.200282

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

114. Biggerstaff M, Cauchemez S, Reed C, Gambhir M, Finelli L. Estimates of the reproduction number for seasonal, pandemic, and zoonotic influenza: a systematic review of the literature. BMC Infect Dis. (2014) 14:480. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-480

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Keywords: coronaviruses, COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, respiratory viruses, seasonality, temperature, humidity

Citation: Audi A, AlIbrahim M, Kaddoura M, Hijazi G, Yassine HM and Zaraket H (2020) Seasonality of Respiratory Viral Infections: Will COVID-19 Follow Suit? Front. Public Health 8:567184. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.567184

Received: 29 May 2020; Accepted: 27 August 2020;
Published: 15 September 2020.

Edited by:

Zhongheng Zhang, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, China

Reviewed by:

Makoto Takeda, National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Japan
Catherine Ropert, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Copyright © 2020 Audi, AlIbrahim, Kaddoura, Hijazi, Yassine and Zaraket. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Hassan Zaraket, hz34@aub.edu.lb; Hadi M. Yassine, hyassine@qu.edu.qa

ORCID: Malak AlIbrahim orcid.org/0000-0002-8801-5228