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Original Research ARTICLE

Front. Public Health, 20 November 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.599550

Analysis of COVID-19 Infections on a CT Image Using DeepSense Model

Adil Khadidos1, Alaa O. Khadidos2, Srihari Kannan3*, Yuvaraj Natarajan4, Sachi Nandan Mohanty5 and Georgios Tsaramirsis6
  • 1Department of Information Technology, Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • 2Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • 3Department of Computer Science and Engineering, SNS College of Engineering, Coimbatore, India
  • 4Research and Development, Information Communication Technology Academy, Chennai, India
  • 5Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India Foundation of Higher Education, Hyderabad, India
  • 6Higher Colleges of Technology, Women's College, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

In this paper, a data mining model on a hybrid deep learning framework is designed to diagnose the medical conditions of patients infected with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus. The hybrid deep learning model is designed as a combination of convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) and named as DeepSense method. It is designed as a series of layers to extract and classify the related features of COVID-19 infections from the lungs. The computerized tomography image is used as an input data, and hence, the classifier is designed to ease the process of classification on learning the multidimensional input data using the Expert Hidden layers. The validation of the model is conducted against the medical image datasets to predict the infections using deep learning classifiers. The results show that the DeepSense classifier offers accuracy in an improved manner than the conventional deep and machine learning classifiers. The proposed method is validated against three different datasets, where the training data are compared with 70%, 80%, and 90% training data. It specifically provides the quality of the diagnostic method adopted for the prediction of COVID-19 infections in a patient.

Introduction

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic outbreak (1). COVID-19 patients are classified essentially based on computerized tomography (CT) lung images, and it is used widely for testing. The healthcare institutions fitted with CT scans help in the process of image acquisition and classification of CT images at a faster rate. However, the need for an expert medical practitioner is hence required for the verification of the final results, which increases the time of computation (2). On the other hand, the supervised learning models (310) can be utilized for classifying the patients from the CT images.

Infections based on CT images are not classified using very little unattended methods (1124). We have developed a model that mainly includes supervised and unsupervised learning models in order to improve the classification process. The aim is to classify the infected patients automatically based on their CT images.

In this paper, a DeepSense algorithm is utilized to diagnose COVID-19 infections among the medical community. The deep learning method is designed as a combination of convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) that reduces the classifier burden on optimal classification of the multidimensional data features.

The main contribution of the work includes the following:

(a) The authors develop a combined CNN and RNN to classify the medical image datasets.

(b) The experimental results are conducted to measure the correctness in terms of its accuracy, precision, and recall values against artificial neural network (ANN), feedforward neural network (FFNN), back propagation neural network (BPNN), deep neural network (DNN), and RNN.

The outline of the paper is presented as follows: The Methods section provides the details of the ensemble classifier. The DeepSense Model section evaluates the entire work. The Results and Discussions section concludes the work with future enhancement.

Methods

The deep learning model namely DeepSense algorithm is a combination of CNN and RNN designed to improve the performance of the classification accuracy. DeepSense learning is regarded as a module for accurate predictions of lung infections caused by the COVID-19 virus. Figure 1 shows the architecture of the proposed classification model using the DeepSense algorithm.

FIGURE 1
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Figure 1. Proposed model for classification.

Deepsense Model

Figure 2 shows the DeepSense DNN (25) model that has three components, including convolutional, recurrent, and output layer that are stacked upon one another. The convolutional and recurrent layers are regarded as the significant building blocks (Figure 1), and the output layer is considered as a specific layer that classifies the images. The DeepSense DNN model is designed for the classification of input CT images for COVID-19-related infections.

FIGURE 2
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Figure 2. Proposed DeepSense deep neural network (DNN) architecture.

The DeepSense network avoids gradient exploding and improves the rate of convergence using residual learning, adjustable learning rate, and gradient clipping that helps in optimizing the process of training.

The features are extracted through the DeepSense model that increases the reconstruction accuracy and reduces the time of training. Such optimization helps in obtaining the rich text information, and it has better ability for classification.

Convolutional Layers

The convolutional layers have three different parts that include individual convolutional subnets for input from CT device X(k), where k is the number of CT device. The other subnets include a merged convolutional subnet for K convolutional subnets' outputs.

For a time interval t, the matrix X(k) is used as an input to the DNN architecture that extracts the relationship of X(k,t), which includes the relationships lying inside the frequency domain. The sensor measurement interactions include entire dimension, where the frequency domain usually has several local patterns. These interactions are studied using 2D filters and produces the output X(k,1,t) based on the local patterns and dimensions in frequency domain. The high-level relationships are learned hierarchically using the application of a 1D filter. The matrix is then flattened into a vector, and they are concatenated to produce the input for RNN layers. The activation function in the convolutional layer is a rectified linear unit (ReLU) function, and batch normalization eliminates the internal covariate shift.

Recurrent Layers

The RNN architecture learns the needed features having long-term dependencies (long paths). The study uses Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) on long and short path selection to reduce well the network complexity. A set of three layers stacked in GRU is used in this paper that uses time flow that runs the stacked GRU incrementally for faster input data processing. The recurrent layer outputs vector series {x(r,t)} where t = 1,2,···, T for the process of classification at the output layer.

Output Layer

For the purpose of classification, {x(r,t)} is selected as the feature vector, and this layer converts the vector of variable length into fixed length. The final feature is generated by averaging the features over a specific time interval based on long or short paths, x(r) x(r)=t=1Tx(t,r)T. Finally the probability of predicted category is generated by feeding the averaging features into the softmax layer.

Type-Specific Layer

For the customization of the DeepSense layer to operate the process of classification, we specifically use the following process:

Step 1: Identify the input image

Step 2: Preprocessing input image for temporal and spectral noise

Step 3: Extract the features related to COVID-19 infections

Step 4: Apply DeepSense classifier for optimal classifier.

Results and Discussions

This section provides the results of comparison between the machine/deep learning classifiers for predicting COVID-19 infections using IEEE8023 (26), COVID-CT-Dataset (27), and COVID-19 Open Research Dataset Challenge (CORD-19) (28) datasets.

IEEE8023 has the image collection from various sources including COVID-19 or viral and bacterial pneumonias in the form of CT images. COVID-CT has 349 COVID-19 CT images from 216 patients and 463 non-COVID-19 CTs. CORD-19 has collected the CT image resources from 52,000 scholarly articles.

The study is experimented using a 10-fold cross validation, which is tested with all these three base classifiers.

Experiment

The performance measures for evaluating the DeepSense classifier is estimated against various metrics: accuracy, geometric mean (G-mean), F-measure, precision, percentage error, specificity, and sensitivity.

Accuracy for optimal classification is given below:

Accuracy=TP+TNTP+TN+FP+FN    (1)

where:

TP is defined as the true positive

TN is defined as the true negative

FP is defined as the false positive

FN is defined as the false negative

F-measure of the DeepSense classifier is defined as follows:

F-measure=2TP2TP+FP+FN    (2)

G-mean of the DeepSense classifier is defined as follows:

G-mean=TPTP+FN×TNTN+FP    (3)

Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the DeepSense classifier is defined as follows:

MAPE=100nt=1n|At-FtAt|    (4)

Where

At is defined as the actual class

Ft is defined as the predicted class, and

n is defined as the fitted points

Sensitivity of the DeepSense is defined as:

Sensitivity=TPTP+FN    (5)

Specificity of the DeepSense is defined as:

Specificity=TNTN+FP    (6)

Analysis

In this section, we provide the results of various meta-ensemble classifiers that include FFNN (29), ANN (25), DNN (30), BPNN (31), and RNN (32). The proposed method is validated against three different datasets, where the training data are compared with 70% (Figure 3), 80% (Figure 4), and 90% (Figure 5) training data.

FIGURE 3
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Figure 3. Results of classification accuracy during training with 70% training data.

FIGURE 4
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Figure 4. Results of classification accuracy during training with 80% training data.

FIGURE 5
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Figure 5. Results of classification accuracy during training with 90% training data.

Figure 3 shows the results of classification accuracy of CORD-19 datasets for all residuals are higher, and with increasing residuals, the accuracy increases. Same is the case for other training sets; however, with 80% datasets, the accuracy is fluctuating due to the extraction of on-optimal features from IEEE8023 datasets.

Tables 1, 4, 7 provide the results of statistical parameters on predicting COVID-19 infections over 70, 80, and 90% training data over IEEE8023 datasets.

TABLE 1
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Table 1. Results of statistical parameters for IEEE8023 with 70% training data on 1,000 images.

Tables 2, 5, 8 provide the results of statistical parameters on predicting COVID-19 infections over 70, 80, and 90% training data over COVID-CT datasets.

TABLE 2
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Table 2. Results of statistical parameters for COVID-CT with 70% training data on 1,000 images.

Tables 3, 6, 9 provide the results of statistical parameters on predicting COVID-19 infections over 70, 80, and 90% training data over CORD-19 datasets.

TABLE 3
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Table 3. Results of statistical parameters for CORD-19 with 70% training data on 1,000 images.

TABLE 4
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Table 4. Results of statistical parameters for IEEE8023 with 80% training data on 1,000 images.

TABLE 5
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Table 5. Results of statistical parameters for COVID-CT with 80% training data on 1,000 images.

TABLE 6
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Table 6. Results of statistical parameters for CORD-19 with 80% training data on 1,000 images.

TABLE 7
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Table 7. Results of statistical parameters for IEEE8023 with 90% training data on 1,000 images.

TABLE 8
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Table 8. Results of statistical parameters for COVID-CT with 90% training data on 1,000 images classifier.

TABLE 9
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Table 9. Results of statistical parameters for CORD-19 with 90% training data on 1,000 images.

Evaluation Criteria

The simulation results show that the DeepSense classifier has higher classification accuracy than the existing meta-ensemble classifiers. In addition, the CORD-19 datasets offer optimum selection of features to increase classification accuracy by 90% training data over 80 or 90%. The other measurements are optimal for CORD-19 than the other selection tools. Furthermore, MAPE is less than the other methods in the deep learning model.

The result shows that the CORD-19 datasets are more accurate than RNN and DNN. The results also show that the classification accuracy with IEEE8023 as a functional selection tool decreases at some point as the number of residues increases compared to COVID-CT and CORD-19. The class of infections is therefore accurately determined with the proposed classification.

Conclusions and Future Work

In this paper, a DeepSense algorithm is designed for the classification of COVID-19 infections. The DeepSense algorithm helps in optimal classification of multidimensional features from CT images. The classifier combined with hybrid deep learning classifier, namely, CNN and RNN, helps in improving the prediction of events from a medical image. The extraction of optimal features from the feature extraction model helps the classifier to optimally detect whether the patient is infected or not. The experimental results show that the proposed method has higher accuracy than the other methods. In the future, the model can be designed with an ensemble data model to classify the highly rated multidimensional dataset.

Data Availability Statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary materials, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author/s.

Author Contributions

AK: visualization and investigation. AOK: data curation, software, and validation. SK: methodology, data curation, review and editing, and supervision. YN: conceptualization, methodology, writing original draft, software, and data curation. SM: software and validation. GT: writing—review and editing and supervision.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Keywords: DeepSense, artificial intelligence, convolutional neural network, CT images, prediction, COVID-19

Citation: Khadidos A, Khadidos AO, Kannan S, Natarajan Y, Mohanty SN and Tsaramirsis G (2020) Analysis of COVID-19 Infections on a CT Image Using DeepSense Model. Front. Public Health 8:599550. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.599550

Received: 27 August 2020; Accepted: 16 October 2020;
Published: 20 November 2020.

Edited by:

Deepak Gupta, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, India

Reviewed by:

Abdulsattar Abdullah Hamad, University of Tikrit, Iraq
George Halikias, City University of London, United Kingdom
Mohammad Yamin, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Copyright © 2020 Khadidos, Khadidos, Kannan, Natarajan, Mohanty and Tsaramirsis. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Srihari Kannan, harionto@gmail.com