Dietary Acrylamide and the risks of developing cancer: facts to ponder
- 1Department of Physiology, Medical Center, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia
- 2Department of Anatomy, Medical Center, National University of Malaysia, Malaysia
Acrylamide (AA) is a water-soluble white crystalline solid commonly used in industries. It was listed as an industrial chemical with potential carcinogenic properties. However to date, AA was used to produce polyacrylamide polymer, which was widely used as a coagulant in water treatment; additives during papermaking; grouting material for dams, tunnels and other underground building constructions. AA in food could be formed during high-temperature cooking via several mechanisms, i.e. formation via acrylic acid which may be derived from the degradation of lipid, carbohydrates or free amino acids; formation via the dehydration/decarboxylation of organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid and citric acid); and direct formation from amino acids. The big debate is whether this compound is toxic to human beings or not. In the present review, we discuss the formation of AA in food products, its consumption and possible link to the development of any cancers. We discuss the body enzymatic influence on AA and mechanism of action of AA on hormone, calcium signaling pathways and cytoskeletal filaments. We also highlight the deleterious effects of AA on nervous system, reproductive system, immune system and the liver. The present and future mitigation strategies are also discussed. The present review on AA may be beneficial for researchers, food industry and also medical personnel.
Keywords: Acrylamide, Food, nutrition, Cancer, Mechanism, human
Received: 24 Oct 2017;
Accepted: 12 Feb 2018.
Edited by:Marcelo P. Baldo, Unimontes, Brazil
Reviewed by:Sirish C. Bennuri, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, United States
Dora Il'Yasova, Georgia State University, United States
Copyright: © 2018 Kumar, Das and Teoh. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Seong Lin Teoh, Medical Center, National University of Malaysia, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, 18th Floor, Pre-Clinical Block,, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, 56000, Malaysia, email@example.com