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Front. Psychol. | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02402

Application of Transtheoretical Model on Behavioral Changes, and Amount of Physical Activity among University’s Students

  • 1School of Medical Sciences, University of Science, Malaysia, Malaysia
  • 2Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, Malaysia
  • 3Department of Sport and Health Science, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, South Korea
  • 4School of Health Sciences, University of Science, Malaysia, Malaysia

This study’s purpose was to examine the structural relationship of the transtheoretical model (TTM) and the amount of physical activity (PA) among undergraduate students in health and medicine at Universiti Sains Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out among students who took part in the co-curricular program. Co-curricular program includes activities that take place outside of the regular lectures or tutorials in the University. Students recruited through purposive sampling were informed that their participation was entirely voluntarily. Those interested completed the self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of the 10-item decisional balance, 18-item self-efficacy, and 30-item processes of change scales. Data were analyzed using Mplus version 8 for descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling analysis for inferential statistics. A total of 562 students participated in the study. The majority of the students was female (79.3%) and Malay (67.3%). The final structural model fit the data well based on several fit indices (CFI = .947, TLI = .908, SRMR = .046, RMSEA (CI: 90%) = .061 (.045, .078), RMSEA p =.130). The model showed that stages of change significantly affected self-efficacy (p < .001), pros (benefits of exercise; p < .001), cons (barriers to exercise; p = .022), and processes of change (p < .001). The model also showed significant inter-relationships among the TTM constructs and supported seven hypotheses. Among all the variables examined, only processes of change significantly affected PA (p < .001). However, stages of change (p < .001) and pros (p=< .001) had significant indirect effects on PA via processes of change. The findings support that individuals’ stages of change affect their self-efficacy level, or the ability to make positive and negative decisions and perform behavior accordingly. The study confirms that making correct decisions and taking action accordingly can increase PA levels. of change in an individual would affect the self-efficacy level, the ability to make a positive and negative decision and perform according to their behavior. This study confirmed that by making the correct decision and taking action accordingly, the amount of physical activity would be increased.

Keywords: Decision balance, Processes of change, physical activity, structural equation modeling (SEM), self-efficacy, transtheoretical modal

Received: 24 Mar 2018; Accepted: 14 Nov 2018.

Edited by:

Maicon R. Albuquerque, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil

Reviewed by:

Leonardo D. Fortes, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil
Alexandre Garcia-Mas, Universidad de les Illes Balears, Spain  

Copyright: © 2018 Liu, Kueh, Arifin, Kim and Kuan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Garry Kuan, University of Science, Malaysia, School of Health Sciences, George Town, Kelantan, Malaysia,