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Front. Psychol. | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02526

Research on How Emotional Expressions of Emotional Labor Workers and Customer Feedbacks Affect Turnover Intentions: Emphasis on Moderating Effects of Emotional Intelligence

  • 1Chungwoon University, South Korea

Previous studies have used various external variables and parameters as well as moderator variables such as emotional intelligence have been to understand emotional labor and its related problems. However, a comprehensive model to study such variables’ correlations with each other and their overall effect on emotional labor has not yet been established. This study used a structural equation model to understand the relationship between employees’ expression of emotional labor and perception of customer feedbacks. The study also looked at how the perception of customer feedback affects emotional exhaustion in order to understand how emotional exhaustion affects job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Further, in order to fully understand the effects of emotion on emotional labor at the service contact points, this study developed and tested a model of emotional labor with 4 factors of emotional intelligence as moderating factors. 579 emotional labor workers in service industries in the U.S. were collected and 577 valid survey results have been analyzed. The result shows that there exists moderating effects of emotional intelligence on how employees’ Deep Acting and Surface Acting recognize customers’ reactions, both positive and negative, that would affect employees’ Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction, and hence, Turnover Intention. The result suggests that employees with better understanding of their own emotions, although they are more likely to recover from emotional exhaustion, experience a greater negative effect when there is a discrepancy between what they feel and how they should act.

Keywords: Emotional labor, emotional expression, customer feedback, Emotional exhaustion, Emotional Intelligence

Received: 13 Sep 2018; Accepted: 27 Nov 2018.

Edited by:

JUNGKUN PARK, Hanyang University, South Korea

Reviewed by:

Jaewook Kim, University of Houston, United States
Dongyoup Kim, Kookmin University, South Korea  

Copyright: © 2018 Lee, LEE and Chung. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Suk Hyung B. LEE, Chungwoon University, Hongseong County, South Korea, blee@chungwoon.ac.kr