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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Psychol. | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00046


  • 1Universidad de Córdoba, Spain

The present study contrasts personal bullying with ethnic-cultural bullying. A representative pluricultural sample from a Spanish adolescent population of Secondary Education took part in the study (N=27369). The sample filled in the EBIPQ to measure the personal bullying. Additionally, they filled in an adaptation of this questionnaire to measure the ethnic-cultural bullying: the EBIPQ-ECD. The EBIPQ-ECD validation showed optimal psychometric properties and a bidimensional structure: ethnic-cultural victimization and ethnic-cultural aggression. The same roles of participation in personal bullying —aggressor, victim, bully/victim, non-involved— were observed in ethnic-cultural bullying, but they did not coincide with each other in a considerable part. Therefore, we concluded that ethnic-cultural bullying is a different phenomenon from personal bullying, with the possibility of existing certain dynamism between both. To prevent and mitigate ethnic-cultural bullying, educational inferences are proposed. We also recommend the use of the EBIPQ-ECD as a tool to evaluate and detect ethnic-cultural aggressions and victimization.

Keywords: Bullying, Discrimination, Peer victimization, ethnic-cultural, Racism, Validation, questionnaire

Received: 15 Sep 2018; Accepted: 08 Jan 2019.

Edited by:

Isabel Menezes, Universidade do Porto, Portugal

Reviewed by:

Manuel García-Ramírez, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain
Armanda P. Matos, University of Coimbra, Portugal  

Copyright: © 2019 Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Calmaestra, Casas and Ortega-Ruiz. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Juan Calmaestra, Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain,