Impact Factor 2.129 | CiteScore 2.40
More on impact ›

Original Research ARTICLE

Front. Psychol., 18 February 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00222

Characteristics of Serve, Reception and Set That Determine the Setting Efficacy in Men’s Volleyball

Jara González-Silva1, Carmen Fernández-Echeverría2*, Manuel Conejero1 and M. Perla Moreno3
  • 1Didactic and Behavioural Analysis in Sports Research Group, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain
  • 2Faculty of Education Sciences, University of Seville, Seville, Spain
  • 3Faculty of Sport, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

The aim of this investigation was to establish the criteria of service, reception and set that determine setting efficacy in world-class top-level volleyball. The study sample consisted of 4.113 gaming actions (1.371 serve actions, 1.371 reception actions, and 1.371 set actions), corresponding to the observation of four matches for each of the 12 best ranked teams in the Volleyball World Championship - a total of 23 matches. The criteria were: in-game role of the server, serve zone, type of serve, striking technique and serve direction; receiver player, reception zone, and reception efficacy; setting zone, type of set, setting technique, setting efficacy, a set’s area, and set tempo. Multinomial logistic regression showed that criteria related to reception (reception efficacy) and to set (setting zone, type of set, a set’s area, and set tempo) determined set efficacy. Specifically, positive and negative receptions and settings from acceptable and non-acceptable zones reduced perfect setting. In contrast, the jump set toward zones three and six and the first and second tempo increased perfect setting. Serve criteria did not determine set efficacy. This study can guide trainers and players in the training process.

Introduction

The specific characteristics of volleyball imply that its game actions are interrelated. Except for the serve, each action is influenced by a preceding action, and all actions influence subsequent actions (Eom and Schutz, 1992). The serve, attack, and block actions have the highest correlation with victory (Marcelino et al., 2008; Montoro-Escaño and Hernández-Mendo, 2014), as they correspond to terminal actions that allow directly scoring points (Marcelino et al., 2010). Reception, set, and defence are intermediary linking actions that do not usually allow obtaining direct points (Marcelino et al., 2010). Teams lacking the ability to effectively execute such intermediate actions are usually most likely to lose sets (Silva et al., 2014).

In volleyball, many studies have been carried out on the research topic of match analysis. Most investigations involved the finalist actions, serve (Buscá et al., 2012), attack (Marcelino et al., 2012; Costa et al., 2017), or block (Afonso and Mesquita, 2011), with fewer studies of the intermediate actions, reception (Paulo et al., 2016), set (Silva et al., 2014), and defence (Mesquita et al., 2007). These investigations have focussed on determining general aspects of the game through descriptive analysis (Callejón and Hernández, 2009) or specific information of the performance of main aspects through inferential analysis (Ureña et al., 2002; Afonso et al., 2005a, b), analysing the variables that could predict performance (González-Silva et al., 2016).

At present, players’ performance variability and the non-linear changes of game actions are important elements to understand sports dynamics (Hamil et al., 1999; Oullier et al., 2006). Thus, studies are developed through entropy, which has allowed researchers to determine players’ performance variability (Rhea et al., 2011; Ramos et al., 2017). Due to the sequential nature of volleyball, knowledge of the relationships between the different game actions is essential. The analysis of the interaction between game actions through social networks provides information about the relationships between the different elements of the system through the establishment of a network system (Laporta et al., 2018).

However, few studies have actually investigated the relationships between the different actions (Costa et al., 2011), and there is an urgent need for studies going beyond the analysis of single actions. The dynamic nature of volleyball makes implies taking the relationships between game actions into account (Hale, 2001).

Of the few studies that have investigated relationships between different actions, several have shown that serve technique greatly influences the efficacy of serve-reception (Joao and Pires, 2015; García-de-Alcaraz et al., 2016). Specifically, jump serves were found to increase the number of receptions that did not facilitate an attack on the opponent. The characteristics of the serve influenced its reception (Paulo et al., 2016). Research has also shown an influence of the serve on setting. At least one study has shown that the type of serve can influence the setting zone (Afonso et al., 2012). Powerful jump serves were more likely to be preceded by sets from acceptable zones. Other studies have shown that, before perfect receptions, setters were more likely to have executed setting of the first tempo, thus increasing the probability of gaining points (Bergeles and Nikolaidou, 2011), although Papadimitriou et al. (2004) failed to verify this finding. However, these authors did show that the quality of the reception influenced the setter’s offensive strategy. At high levels of volleyball, set efficacy was found to increase when using the finger set technique (Palao et al., 2009), thus indicating that set variables also influence setting efficacy. González-Silva et al. (2016) showed that, in the male category of training stages, setting zone, setting technique, a set’s area, and set tempo also influenced setting efficacy.

Previous investigations focussed on the training stages of volleyball have shown that setters usually did not perform a perfect setting action following a poor serve-reception (González-Silva et al., 2016). Conversely, for high-level volleyball, research has shown that the setter is often able to achieve success from bad serve-receptions (Papadimitriou et al., 2004; Silva et al., 2014). In addition to verifying this fact, the present investigation sought to determine whether variables related to service, receptions, and the setting action itself influenced the setting efficacy. Therefore, all actions prior to the setting action (a finalist and other intermediaries) are considered, an aspect that has not been analysed in prior studies.

Materials and Methods

Design

The present investigation is an ideographic, punctual and multidimensional observational design (Anguera et al., 2011).

Participants

The study sample comprised a total of 4113 game actions (1371 serve actions, 1371 reception actions, and 1371 setting actions) corresponding to the observation of the 12 best classified teams in the men’s World Championship. The observed actions occurred in the third phase of the championship. All the matches of that phase were analysed, which involved the observation of four matches of each of the participating teams, that is, 87 sets, in which the two teams that played each of the matches were observed. The sets per team are shown in Table 1. Participants’ informed and written consent was obtained for the study.

TABLE 1
www.frontiersin.org

Table 1. Number of sets observed by team.

The study is exempt from ethical approval because the observation of game actions does not pose any risk to the participants. The study was performed in accordance with Spanish and international guidelines for scientific research involving humans.

Instrument

The data collected were register with the observational analysis software applied to volleyball VA-Sports (Morante, 2014).

Procedure

All the matches were recorded in their entirety, with the camera located in one of the corners of the court, guaranteeing an optimum field of vision.

After collecting the video footage, an observer, who was a Graduate of Science in Physical Activity and Sports, National Level III volleyball coach, and who had 5 years of experience as a coach, conducted a training process and encoded game actions. The training process was carried out for six training sessions using samples with different characteristics.

The intra-observer Cohen’s Kappa values reached in the observation of all the criteria were higher than 0.75, which was the minimum value considered to be almost perfect agreement (Fleiss et al., 2003). To guarantee the temporal reliability of the measurement, the same coding was performed on two occasions, with an interval of 10 days, obtaining Cohen’s Kappa values of over 0.75. Table 2 shows the Cohen Kappa values obtained in each training session of each criterion, at the different temporary moments.

TABLE 2
www.frontiersin.org

Table 2. Kappa de Cohen values of the criteria in each training session.

Finally, a generalisability analysis (TG) has been carried out (Cronbach et al., 1963, 1972). This type of analysis has been used in order to know the validity of the sample. This analysis was carried out with SAGT, which is a computer application for generalisability analysis (Hernández-Mendo et al., 2016). For the study of validity, a three-faceted design was structured: coincidence (P), criterion (V), and category (C), which allow estimating the validity of the criteria used in the category system.

After obtaining the optimum reliability values, the observation was carried out. Below we indicate the criteria and their corresponding categories (Hernández Mendo et al., 2012; Anguera and Hernández-Mendo, 2013), considered in the observation tool used in this study:

In-game role of the server, defined as the in-game role of the player serving. The categories were: receiver, setter, opposite, and middle attacker (Araújo et al., 2010; Stankoviae et al., 2018).

Serve zone, defined as the zone from which the serve is carried out, covering a 9-m wide space located behind the baseline of the court and as an extension to the sidelines of the court, differentiating three zones of origin. The categories were: zone 1, defined as the strip 3 m wide from the right sideline of the field and behind the bottom line; zone 6, defined as the strip 3 m wide located 3 m from the left sidelines and 3 m from the right sideline of the field and behind the bottom line; zone 5, defined as the strip 3 m wide from the left sideline and behind the bottom line (Queiroga et al., 2010).

Serve type, defined as the type of serve used by the player, considering the location of the player at the time of contact with the ball (García-de-Alcaraz et al., 2016). The categories were: standing, when the player making the throw has some contact with the ground at the moment of hitting the ball; jump, when the player who performs the serve does not have any contact with the ground at the moment of hitting the ball (Afonso et al., 2012; Costa et al., 2012).

Striking technique, the type of serve technique used by the player, considering the flight trajectory of the ball after striking. The categories were: power, when the player who makes the serve contacts by transmits great power and speed to the ball, so the ball rotates forwards; float, when the player who makes the serve contacts the ball with the minimum surface and the least possible time, so the ball does not rotate, but follows a fluctuating and unpredictable trajectory (García-de-Alcaraz et al., 2016).

Serve direction, defined as the direction determined by the serve depending on the serve zone and reception zone. The categories were: parallel, the area of origin of the serve and the reception zone are in line; this direction corresponds to the serves of one-to-five, six-to-six, and five-to-one; mid cross-court, the area of origin of the serve is in an area close to the reception zone; this direction corresponds to the serves of one-to-six, six-to-five, six-to-one, and five-to-six; long cross-court, the area of origin of the serve is in an area far from the reception zone; this direction corresponds to the serves of one-to-one and five-to-five (Gil et al., 2011).

Serve efficacy, defined as the performance or effect obtained with the serve. In order to assess efficacy, the systems of categories employed in “Data Volley System Valuation” (Data Volley, 2010) were used: perfect serve (#), the opponent does not touch the ball or fails to return it; positive serve (+), the opposite reception ends three or more meters from the net, the setter cannot play the first tempo, or the reception ends 1–2 m from the net, making the setter’s combination difficult; negative serve (−), the opposite reception is perfect, the setter has all the pass options.

Receiver player, defined as the in-game role of the player at whom the serve is aimed for reception. The categories were: outside-hitter, the receiver player has an offensive role and is positioned in the attack zone of the court, i.e., zones two, three, and four; receiver of the defence zone, the receiver player has a defensive role and is positioned in the defence zone of the court, i.e., zones one, six, and five; libero, the receiver player is a specialist in defence and reception; other players, the receiver player has a different role from the outside-hitter, receiver of the defence zone, and libero (Gil-Arias et al., 2016).

Reception zone, defined as zone where the serve is received. The categories were: lane one, zone of 3 m × 9 m located on the right side of the court; lane six, zone of 3 m × 9 m located at the centre of the court; lane five, zone of 3 m × 9 m located on the left side of the court; space between players, reception is performed in an intermediate zone with conflict between two receivers (Gil-Arias et al., 2016).

Reception efficacy, defined as the effect obtained in the reception of the serve. In order to assess efficacy, the systems of categories employed in “Data Volley System Valuation” (Data Volley, 2010) were used: perfect serve-receptions (#), defined as the reception through which the ball reaches an optimal setting zone, allowing the pass in suspension and giving the setter all the attack options; positive serve-receptions (+), defined as the reception that gives the setter all the attack options, but in order to play the first tempo, he must take risks; negative serve-receptions (−), defined as the reception that does not give the setter all the attack options, so he cannot make first-tempo attacks.

Setting zone (Figure 1), defined as the place on the court from which the setting pass was carried out. The categories were: an excellent zone, a 10 m2 area (2 m × 5 m), located 1 m from the right sideline and 3 m from the left sideline; an acceptable zone, a 6 m2 area (2 m × 3 m) located at 2 m from the zone A, at 4 m from the left lateral line and at 2 m from the right lateral line; an non-acceptable zone, all the remaining area (Afonso et al., 2012).

FIGURE 1
www.frontiersin.org

Figure 1. Setting zone (Adapted from Castro and Mesquita, 2010, p. 200).

Type of set, defined as the typology of sets made by players, based on whether the setter was in contact with the ground at the time of performing the set. The categories were: jump set, when the setter has his feet in the air at the moment of contact with the ball; standing set, when the setter has his feet on the ground at the moment of contact with the ball (Palao and Martínez, 2013; Palao and Ahrabi-Fard, 2014).

Setting technique, defined as the complete gesture used in the setting pass. The categories were: forearm set, the setter performs the setting touching with the forearm; overhand set, the setter performs the setting touching with the fingers of both hands (Papadimitriou et al., 2004).

Setting efficacy, defined as the performance or effect obtained in the setting. The FIVB system criteria were used. The categories were: non-precise setting, defined as setting that does not allow an attack or that allows an attack but without all the options; good setting, defined as a precise set action that allows an attack in front of two blockers or one middle blocker; and perfect setting, defined as a precise set action that allows an attack in front of one or no blockers (adapted of Moreno et al., 2008).

Set’s area, defined as the area of the court where the attack strike was made. The categories were: zone one, defined as an area 3 m × 6 m long, located in the right area of the rear part of the field; zone two, an area 3 m × 3 m long, located on the upper right side of the network; zone three, an area 3 m × 3 m long, located in the central area of the front of the network; zone four, an area 3 m × 3x long located on the upper left side of the network; zone six, an area 3 m × 6m, located in the central area of the rear of the field (Tsavdaroglou et al., 2018).

Set tempo, defined as the interaction between the moment when the setter makes contact with the ball and the start of the attackers’ approach. The categories were: first tempo, the attacker is in the air when the ball reaches the setter; second tempo, the attacker is performing the penultimate step of the race when the ball reaches the setter; third tempo, the attacker has not started the attack race when the ball reaches the setter (Costa et al., 2011; González-Silva et al., 2016).

Statistical Analysis

An inferential analysis was performed to verify the associations between each of the criteria and setting efficacy. This analysis is presented through contingency tables, including chi-square and Cramer’s V-values. The statistical significance level considered was p < 0.05. The inferential analysis indicated a significant relationship between setting efficacy and: reception efficacy, setting zone, type of set, set’s area, and set tempo. The remaining criteria (in-game role of the server, serve zone, serve type, striking technique, serve direction, receiver player, reception zone, and setting technique) could not be included in the model because they did not show an association. Finally, using the multinomial logistic regression model, the predictions of the criteria on setting efficacy were obtained. We performed a multicollinearity test prior to regression analysis to avoid including intercorrelated criteria. We considered the value of tolerance > 0.10 and FIV < 10 (Hair et al., 2014). As a result of this analysis, serve efficacy (tolerance = 0.031, FIV = 32.253) was excluded as a criterion because it had a value of tolerance below 0.10 and a value of FIV above 10 (Hair et al., 2014). All statistical analyses were performed using the statistical software package SPSS (version.0 for Windows, SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, EUA).

Results

Table 3 presents the results of the TG. The model [P] [V]/[C] was created where the relative and absolute coefficients of the facet, category, in this case, were 0.082. With a generalisation coefficient close to 0, this indicates the heterogeneity of the system and the integrity and mutual exclusivity (E/ME), therefore being the optimal estimated value (Blanco-Villaseñor et al., 2014) so the category system is valid (Table 3).

TABLE 3
www.frontiersin.org

Table 3. Generalisability analysis partial models’ adjustments of categories with SAGT.

Table 4 presents the results of the inferential analysis.

TABLE 4
www.frontiersin.org

Table 4. Association between criteria and setting efficacy.

Table 5 presents the predictive analysis of the reference category perfect setting on the criteria setting efficacy compared to non-precise setting and good setting:

TABLE 5
www.frontiersin.org

Table 5. Adjusted model of setting efficacy.

An inspection of Table 5 shows that, when comparing non-precise and perfect settings, positive and negative serve-receptions led to an increase of non-precise settings instead of perfect settings. When comparing good and perfect settings, negative serve-receptions led to an increase of good setting actions, but to a reduction of perfect setting actions.

Regarding setting criteria, when comparing non-precise and perfect settings, the set’s area and set tempo determined setting efficacy. Specifically, the implementation of jumping rather than supporting, setting toward zone three instead of toward zone four, and sets at first and second tempo instead of at the third tempo decreased the number of non-precise settings.

When comparing good and perfect settings, the setting zone, a set’s area, and set tempo were shown to determine setting efficacy. Specifically, setting from an acceptable or non-acceptable zone rather than from an excellent zone decreased setting efficacy by increasing the amount of non-precise setting. Furthermore, setting toward zone six rather than toward zone four, and making sets at first and second tempo instead of at third times increased setting efficacy by decreasing the number of non-precise settings rather than perfect settings.

Discussion

The aim objective of this investigation was to establish which criteria of service, serve-receptions, and set determine setting efficacy at the highest level of male volleyball.

First, in order to know the validity of the sample, the TG was applied. The results obtained showed that the criteria used in the category system were valid. The TG has been applied in other works, in different sports, obtaining results similar to those of the present study regarding the validity of the category system (Montoro-Escaño and Hernández-Mendo, 2014; Miranda et al., 2019; Vázquez-Diz et al., 2019).

Of all the initially considered criteria, including those related to serving, serve-reception, and set, only those related to serve-reception and setting determined setting efficacy, that is, only the criteria directly related to the set (previous action and the action itself). None of the serving criteria determined this efficacy. The high and similar level of play across the sample of our study may be one of the reasons why no criteria of this action determined the setting efficacy.

We found that poor serve-receptions influenced subsequent sets. More precisely, we found that poor reception efficacy was associated with a decrease in setting efficacy. There were a greater number of non-precise setting actions following poor receptions. Our results therefore demonstrate that the quality of serve-reception is an important factor for a team’s success (Peña et al., 2013; Paulo et al., 2016). It is necessary to continue in-depth study of the intermediate actions and their relationships with the rest of the game actions. Indeed, reception has been shown to influence both the organisation of the attack, via the set (Joao et al., 2010), and its quality (Afonso et al., 2010). Thus, a negative reception performance can influence the performance of the setter and, consequently, affect the team’s offensive organisation (Bergeles and Nikolaidou, 2011). Therefore, it is necessary for the receiving players to perform specific reception exercises, in order to achieve quality receptions. In this regard, a work in which the same sample was considered that the one analysed in the present study (González-Silva et al., in press) showed that variables such as the previous displacement of the receiver, reception technique and receiver position acted as predictors of reception efficacy. Therefore, these variables could be taken into account in training tasks. Optimum reception efficacy will have a positive influence on the set and, therefore, on the organisation of the attack.

With regard to the setting zone, our results showed that setting efficacy was reduced, with more good settings than perfect settings after sets from acceptable and non-acceptable zones. These results are in line with those found by Afonso et al. (2010), where, in the case of sets from a non-acceptable zone, the subsequent sets were not perfect. Setting zone is related to setting efficacy (Silva et al., 2013) and determines the efficacy and timing of an attack (Afonso et al., 2010). Studies such as that of Silva et al. (2016) show that the sixth rotation discriminates victory. In this rotation, the setter is located near the ideal setting position where it will be possible to perform quickly, thus increasing setting efficacy (González-Silva et al., 2016). These results show the need to reproduce “out of the system” in the training situations so that the setting efficacy is not influenced by the area of arrival of the ball.

The type of set also determined setting efficacy: prior jumping sets increased setting efficacy, decreasing the number of good setting actions relative to perfect setting actions. These results are consistent with those of Palao and Martínez (2013), who showed that the use of jump sets by teams of an international level produced an increase in setting efficacy. The higher level of play in these categories makes the use of jump sets common (Palao and Ahrabi-Fard, 2014). With this action, the setters try to deceive their opponents (Mesquita and Graça, 2002) by reducing the cues that the setter gives to the rivals, reducing the flight time of the ball (Buscà and Febrer, 2012) and providing better conditions for the attack (Palao and Ahrabi-Fard, 2014). This implies that jump sets increase the speed of the game, as well as the attack efficacy, and the efficacy of the action (Palao and Echeverría, 2008). Finally, concerning the set’s area and the set tempo, perfect settings were associated with a faster tempo and more balls being sent to zones three and pipe, compared to non-precise and good setting. Attacks in these zones and at fast times increase the options of obtaining points and limit the defence (Castro et al., 2011). It is therefore advisable that, in training, setters acquire the ability to play quickly as well as with variability concerning the set’s area (Ramos et al., 2017). Therefore, whenever conditions permit, it is preferable to perform jump sets, which increase the speed of play. Likewise, it is advisable to make the settings quickly, as the increase in the speed of the game will allow the attackers to carry out their attacks against a smaller number of rival players in the blockade, thereby favoring gaining a point.

As for the limitations of the study, despite the fact that the study was limited to the 12 best teams in the championship, the quality of the opponent was not taken into account. In the future, these criteria should be considered, as well as other contextual criteria, which provide detailed information of the game context. In addition, in future research, we intend to investigate new statistical tests such as the analysis of social networks.

Conclusion

At the highest level of male volleyball, considering criteria of actions prior to the set (serve and reception) and of the set itself, only criteria related to reception (reception efficacy) and set (setting zone, type of set, a set’s area, and set tempo) determined setting efficacy. None of the service-related criteria were found to be determinants.

The continuous search for improvement in all game actions at this level of volleyball means that the differences between some teams may be minute. Consequently, the appraisal of the criteria that affect the performance of actions is of vital importance to teams. To improve the performance of the setting action, coaches should consider the influence of criteria of preceding actions (reception efficacy) in addition to criteria related to space, speed, and setting technique. Moreover, it would be advisable not to train only “in the system” but also situations “out of the system” with the aim of achieving some independence between actions, that is, the setter manages to perform assignments efficiently and in specific areas, independently of the conditions in which the ball arrives. Specifically, receivers need to increase reception efficacy in order to ensure that a greater number of balls reach the ideal sets area and to avoid negatively affecting the set. Our results also suggest that setters should make as many jumps sets as possible and be variable concerning the set’s area and the set tempo, preferably making a quick play.

Data Availability Statement

All datasets generated for this study are included in the article/supplementary material.

Ethics Statement

The study is exempt from ethical approval because the observation of the game actions does not pose any risk to the participants. It was found to be in accordance with Spanish and international guidelines for scientific research involving humans.

Author Contributions

JG-S and MM designed the study. JG-S wrote the original manuscript. All authors critically reviewed and revised the draft., read and approved the final version of the manuscript, and agree with the order of presentation of the authors.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Acknowledgments

This study belongs to the doctoral thesis called Analysis of the variables that affect the reception and the setting in volleyball, made by JG-S at the University of Extremadura (González-Silva, 2019). This study was made possible thanks to the contribution of the Consejería de Economía e Infraestructuras de la Junta de Extremadura (Spain) through the European Regional Development fund: A way to make Europe (GR18129).

References

Afonso, A., Esteves, F., Araujo, R., Thomas, L., and Mesquita, I. (2012). Tactical determinants of setting zone in elite men’s volleyball. J. Sports Sci. Med. 11, 64–70.

PubMed Abstract | Google Scholar

Afonso, J., and Mesquita, I. (2011). Determinants of block cohesiveness and attack efficacy in high-level women’s volleyball. Eur. J. Sport Sci. 11, 69–75. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2010.487114

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Afonso, J., Mesquita, I., Marcelino, R., and Silva, J. (2010). Analysis of the setter’s tactical action in high-level women’s volleyball. Kinesiology 42, 82–89.

Google Scholar

Afonso, J., Mesquita, I., and Palao, J. M. (2005a). Relationship between the use of commit-block and the numbers of blockers and block effectiveness. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport 5, 36–45. doi: 10.1080/24748668.2005.11868326

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Afonso, J., Mesquita, I., and Palao, J. M. (2005b). The relationship between the tempo and zone of spike and the number of blockers against hitters. Int. J. Volleyball Res. 8, 19–23.

Google Scholar

Anguera, M. T., Blanco, A., Hernández-Mendo, A., and Losada, J. L. (2011). Diseños observacionales: ajuste y aplicación en psicología del deporte [Observational designs: adjustment and aplication in sport psychology]. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte 11, 63–76.

Google Scholar

Anguera, M. T., and Hernández-Mendo, A. (2013). La metodología observacional en el ámbito del deporte [The observational methodology in the field of sport]. E-balonmano.com 9, 135–160.

Google Scholar

Araújo, D., Travassos, B., and Vilar, L. (2010). Tactical skills are not verbal skills: a comment on kannekens and colleagues. Percept. Mot. Skill 110, 1086–1088. doi: 10.2466/pms.110.C.1086-1088

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Bergeles, N., and Nikolaidou, E. (2011). Setter’s performance and attack tempo as determinants of attack efficacy in Olympic-level male volleyball teams. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport 11, 535–544.

Google Scholar

Blanco-Villaseñor, A., Castellano, J., Hernández-Mendo, A., Sánchez-López, C. R., and Usabiaga, O. (2014). Aplicación de la TG en el deporte para el estudio de la fiabilidad, validez y estimación de la muestra [Application of the generalizability theory in sport to study the validity, realibility and estimation of samples]. Revista de Psicología del Deporte 23, 131–137.

Google Scholar

Buscà, B., and Febrer, J. (2012). La lucha temporal entre el bloqueado central y el colocador en voleibol de alto nível. [Temporal fight between the middle blocker and the setter in high level volleyball]. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte 12, 313–327.

Google Scholar

Buscá, B., Moras, G., Peñas, J., and Rodríguez-Jiménez, S. (2012). The influence of serve characteristics on performance in men’s and women’s high-standard beach volleyball. J. Sports Sci. 30, 269–276. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.635309

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Callejón, D., and Hernández, C. (2009). Estudio y análisis de la recepción en el voleibol masculino de alto rendimiento [Study and analysis of reception in high-performance men‘s volleyball]. RICYDE. Rev. Int. Cienc. Deporte 5, 34–51. doi: 10.5232/ricyde2009.01603

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Castro, J., Souza, A., and Mesquita, I. (2011). Attack efficacy in volleyball: elite male teams. Percept. Mot. Skill 113, 395–408. doi: 10.2466/05.25.pms.113.5.395-408

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Castro, J. M., and Mesquita, I. (2010). Analysis of the attack tempo determinants in volleyball‘s complex II – a study on elite male teams. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport 10, 197–206. doi: 10.1080/24748668.2010.11868515

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Costa, G., Afonso, J., Brant, E., and Mesquita, I. (2012). Differences in game patterns between male and female youth volleyball. Kinesiology 44, 60–66.

Google Scholar

Costa, G., Caetano, C., Ferreira, N., Junqueira, G., Afonso, J., Costa, R. P., et al. (2011). Determinants of attack tactics in Youth male elite volleyball. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport 11, 96–104. doi: 10.1080/24748668.2011.11868532

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Costa, G., Castro, H. O., Evangelista, B. F., Malheiros, L. M., Greco, P. J., and Ugrinowitsch, H. (2017). Predicting factors of zone 4 attack in volleyball. Percept. Mot. Skills 124, 621–633. doi: 10.1177/0031512517697070

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Cronbach, L. J., Gleser, G. C., Nanda, H. Y., and Rajaratnam, N. (1972). The Dependability Of Behavioral Measurements: Theory of Generalizability for Scores and Profiles. Hoboken, NY: John Wiley and Sons.

Google Scholar

Cronbach, L. J., Rajaratnam, N. Y., and Gleser, G. C. (1963). Theory of generalizability: a liberalization of reliability theory. Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol. 16, l37–l163.

Google Scholar

Data Volley (2010). Data Volley System Valuation. Statistics and Analysis Software. Data Project S.L. Italy.

Google Scholar

Eom, H. J., and Schutz, R. W. (1992). Statistical analyses of volleyball team performance. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport 63, 11–18. doi: 10.1080/02701367.1992.10607551

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Fleiss, J., Levin, B., and Paik, M. (2003). Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Google Scholar

García-de-Alcaraz, A., Ortega, E., and Palao, J. M. (2016). Effect of age group on technical-tactical performance profile of the serve in Men’s volleyball. (2016). Percept. Mot. Skill 123, 508–525. doi: 10.1177/0031512516660733

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Gil, A., Del Villar, F., Moreno, A., García-González, L., and Moreno, M. P. (2011). Análisis de la eficacia del saque de voleibol en categoría de formación [Analysis of the efficacy of volleyball serve formation in category]. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte 11, 721–737.

Google Scholar

Gil-Arias, A., Claver, F., Fernández-Echeverría, C., Moreno, A., and Moreno, M. P. (2016). Análisis comparativo del saque en voleibol entre los campeonato de España [Comparative analysis of the serve in volleyball between the spanish championshios 2005-2010] 2005/2010. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte 16, 439–456.

Google Scholar

González-Silva, J. (2019). Análisis de las Variables que Afectan a la Recepción y la Colocación en voleibol [Analysis of the Variables that Affect the Reception and the Setting in Volleyball]. Tesis Doctoral, Universidad de Extremadura, España.

Google Scholar

González-Silva, J., Fernández-Echeverría, C., Conejero, M., and Moreno, M. P. (in press). Predictores de la eficacia de recepción en voleibol mundial masculine U-21 y absolute [Predictors of the reception efficacy in men’s world volleyball U-21 and absolute]. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte.

Google Scholar

González-Silva, J., Moreno, A., Fernández-Echeverría, C., Claver, F., and Moreno, M. P. (2016). Analysis of setting efficacy in young male and female volleyball players. J. Hum. Kinet. 53, 189–200. doi: 10.1515/hukin-2016-0022.

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., and Anderson, R. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th Edn. Harlow: Pearson.

Google Scholar

Hale, T. (2001). Do human movement scientists obey the basic tenets of scientific inquiry? Quest 53, 202–215.

Google Scholar

Hamil, J., Richard, E. A., van Emmerik, B., Heiderscheit, B., and Li, L. (1999). A dynamical systems approach to lower extremity running injures. Clin. Biomech. 14, 297–308.

Google Scholar

Hernández Mendo, A., Montoro Escaño, J., Reina Gómez, A., and Fernández García, J. C. (2012). Desarrollo y optimización de una herramienta observacional para el bloqueo en voleibol [Development and optimization of and observational tool for volleyball blocking]. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte 7, 15–32.

Google Scholar

Hernández-Mendo, A., Blanco-Villaseñor, A., Pastrana, J. L., Morales-Sánchez, V., and Ramos-Pérez, F. J. (2016). SAGT: aplicación informática para análisis de generalizabilidad [SAGT: computer application for generalizability analysis]. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del ejercicio y el deporte 11, 77–89.

Google Scholar

Joao, P. V., Leite, N., Mesquita, I., and Sampaio, J. (2010). Sex differences in discriminative power of volleyball game-related statistics. Percept. Mot. Skill 111, 893–900.

PubMed Abstract | Google Scholar

Joao, P. V., and Pires, P. M. (2015). Eficácia do Side-out no voleibol senior masculine em funçao do jogador interveniente. [Effectiveness of Side-Out in the male senior volleyball according intervention player]. Motricidade 11, 142–150.

Google Scholar

Laporta, L., Afonso, J., and Mesquita, I. (2018). Interaction network analysis of the six game complexes in high-level volleyball through the use of eigenvector centrality. PLoS One 13:e0203348. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203348

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Marcelino, R., Mesquita, I., and Afonso, J. (2008). The weight of terminal actions in Volleyball. Contributions of the spike serve and block for the teams’ rankings in the World League 2005. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport 8, 1–7.

Google Scholar

Marcelino, R., Mesquita, I., Sampaio, J., and Moraes, J. (2010). Study of performance indicators in male volleyball according to the set results. Revista Brasileira de Educaçao Física e Esporte 24, 69–78.

Google Scholar

Marcelino, R., Sampaio, J., and Mesquita, I. (2012). Attack and serve performances according to the match period and quality of opposition in elite volleyball matches. J. Strength Cond. Res. 26, 3385–3391. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182474269

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Mesquita, I., and Graça, A. (2002). Probing the strategic knowledge of an elite volleyball setter: a case study. Int. J. Volleyball Res. 5, 13–17.

Google Scholar

Mesquita, I., Manso, D., and Palao, J. M. (2007). Defensive participation libero and efficacy of the libero in volleybal. J. Hum. Mov. Stud. 52, 95–107.

Google Scholar

Miranda, J., Lapresa, D., Arana, J., Iza, A., and Anguera, M. T. (2019). Análisis observacional de los movimientos ilegales en la iniciación al ajedrez: identificando dificultades en el entendimiento del juego [Observational analysis of illegal moves in grassroots chess: identifying difficulties in the understanding of the fame]. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte 19, 90–101.

Google Scholar

Montoro-Escaño, J., and Hernández-Mendo, A. (2014). Incidencia del nivel de competición en el rendimiento del bloqueo en voleibol femenino [Impact on competition level performance block female volleyball]. RICYDE, Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte 36, 144–155.

Google Scholar

Morante (2014). VA-Sports 1.0.75. [Volleyball]. Observational Analysis Software Applied to Volleyball. Lion: Sports Software Development.

Google Scholar

Moreno, M. P., Moreno, A., Ureña, A., Iglesias, D., and Del Villar, F. (2008). Application of mentoring through reflection in female setters of the Spanish National Volleyball team: a case study. Int. J. Sport Exerc. Psychol. 39, 59–76.

Google Scholar

Oullier, O., Marin, L., Stoffregen, T., Boostma, R., and Bardy, B. (2006). “Variability in postural coordination dynamics,” in Movement System Variability, eds K. Davids, S. Bennett, and K. Newell, (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics), 25–47.

Google Scholar

Palao, J. M., and Ahrabi-Fard, I. (2014). Effect of jump set usage on side-out phase in women’s college volleyball. J. Sport Hum. Perform. 2, 1–10.

Google Scholar

Palao, J. M., and Echeverría, C. J. (2008). Evolución de la utilización colocación en salto en el voleibol femenino y su efecto sobre el juego [Evolution of the use of jump setting in women‘s volleyball and its effect on the game]. Kronos 7, 35–44.

Google Scholar

Palao, J. M., Manzanares, P., and Ortega, E. (2009). Tecniques used and efficacy of volleyball skills in relation on gender. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport 9, 281–293.

Google Scholar

Palao, J. M., and Martínez, S. (2013). Utilización de la colocación en salto en función del nivel de competición en voleibol masculino [Use of jump set in relationship to the competition level in male volleyball]. Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias del Deporte 2, 43–49.

Google Scholar

Papadimitriou, K., Pashali, E., Sermaki, I., Mellas, S., and Papas, M. (2004). The effect of the opponents’ serves on the offensive actions of Greek setters in volleyball games. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport 4, 23–33.

Google Scholar

Paulo, A., Zaal, F., Fonseca, S., and Araújo, D. (2016). Predicting Volleyball serve-reception. Front. Psychol. 7:1694. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01694

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Peña, J., Rodríguez-Guerra, J., Buscà, B., and Serra, N. (2013). Which skills and factors better predict winning and losing in high-level men’s volleyball? J. Strength Cond. Res. 27, 2487–2493.

Google Scholar

Queiroga, M. A., Matias, C. J. A. S., Greco, P. J., and Mesquita, I. (2010). O conhecimento tático-estratégico dos levantadores integrantes das seleções brasileiras de voleibol. Fit. Perform. J. 9, 78–92.

Google Scholar

Ramos, A., Coutinho, P., Silva, P., Davids, K., and Mesquita, I. (2017). How players exploit variability and regularity of game actions in female volleyball teams. Eur. J. Sport Sci. 17, 473–481. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2016.1271459

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Rhea, C. K., Silver, T. A., Hong, S. L., Ryu, J. H., Studenka, B. E., Hughes, C. M. L., et al. (2011). Noise and complexity in human postural control: interpreting the different estimations of entropy. PLoS One 6:e17696. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017696

PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Silva, M., Lacerda, D., and João, P. V. (2013). Match analysis of discrimination skills according to the setter attack zone position in high level volleyball. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport 13, 452–460.

Google Scholar

Silva, M., Lacerda, D., and Joao, V. (2014). Match analysis of discrimination skills according to the setter defense zone position in high level volleyball. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport 14, 463–472.

Google Scholar

Silva, M., Sattler, T., Lacercda, D., and Joao, P. V. (2016). Match analysis according to the performance of team rotation in volleyball. Int. J. Perform. Anal. Sport 16, 1076–1086.

Google Scholar

SPSS (2010). Versión 18.0 Para Windows. Chicago, IL: SPSS, Inc.

Google Scholar

Stankoviae, M., Ruiz-Llamanas, G., Periae, D., and Quiroga-Escudero, M. (2018). Analysis of serve characteristics under rules tested at Volleyball Men’s Under 23 World Championship. Retos. Nuevas tendencias en Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación. 33, 20–26.

Google Scholar

Tsavdaroglou, S., Sotiropoulos, K., and Barzouka, K. (2018). Comparison and assessment of the setting zone choices by elite male and female volleyball setters in relation to opposing block organization. J. Phys. Educ. Sport 18, 2147–2152. doi: 10.7752/jpes.2018.s5325

CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar

Ureña, A., Calvo, R., and Lozano, C. (2002). Estudio de la recepción del saque en el voleibol masculino español de elite tras la incorporación del jugador líbero. Revista internacional de ciencias de la actividad fisica y del deporte 2, 37–49.

Google Scholar

Vázquez-Diz, J. A., Morillo-Baro, J. P., Reigal, R. E., Morales-Sánchez, V., and Hernández-Mendo, A. (2019). Estudio de las acciones del portero en balonmano playa a través del análisis de coordenadas polares: diferencias por género [performance of the goalkeeper in beach handball through polar coordinates analysis: differences by gender]. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte 19, 139–155.

Google Scholar

Keywords: performance, volleyball, set, high level, male

Citation: González-Silva J, Fernández-Echeverría C, Conejero M and Moreno MP (2020) Characteristics of Serve, Reception and Set That Determine the Setting Efficacy in Men’s Volleyball. Front. Psychol. 11:222. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00222

Received: 19 April 2019; Accepted: 31 January 2020;
Published: 18 February 2020.

Edited by:

Rubén Maneiro, Pontifical University of Salamanca, Spain

Reviewed by:

Patrícia Coutinho, University of Porto, Portugal
Verónica Morales-Sánchez, Universidad de Málaga, Spain

Copyright © 2020 González-Silva, Fernández-Echeverría, Conejero and Moreno. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Carmen Fernández-Echeverría, Cfecheverria@us.es