Is Nostalgia a Past or Future-Oriented Experience? Affective, Behavioral, Social Cognitive, and Neuroscientific Evidence
- Department of Psychology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, United States
Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for the past, is a common, universal, and highly social emotional experience. Nostalgic reverie is centered around the self, important social connections, and personally meaningful life events (e.g., graduation; Routledge, 2015). In other words, when people bring to mind memories that make them nostalgic, they are revisiting personally meaningful life events shared with loved ones. A growing body of research positions nostalgia as a psychological resource with self-regulatory implications. Negative affective states such as sadness, loneliness, and meaninglessness trigger nostalgia and nostalgia, in turn, enhances well-being, feelings of social connectedness, and perceptions of meaning in life (e.g., Routledge et al., 2013). Building on the behavioral inhibition (BIS/avoidance motivation) and behavioral activation (BAS/approach motivation) regulatory model Carver and White (1994), research also indicates that the activation of avoidance motivation increases nostalgia, which then activates approach motivation (Stephan et al., 2014). In the present analysis, we draw on the current state of the science to propose that nostalgia is ultimately a future-oriented emotional experience. Nostalgia involves reflecting on past experiences but it motivates affective states, behaviors, and goals that improve people's future lives. In the following sections, we briefly review relevant evidence across affective, behavioral, social cognitive, and neuroscientific indicators and close by considering the need for future research focused on nostalgia as a shared experience.
Nostalgia increases general well-being (Routledge et al., 2013) but also positively impacts motivation-relevant affect. For instance, nostalgia increases optimism (Cheung et al., 2013, 2016) inspiration (Stephan et al., 2015) social efficacy (Abeyta et al., 2015) and feelings of purpose in life (Routledge et al., 2011). In addition, as people get older, nostalgia makes them feel youthful and more optimistic about their health (Abeyta and Routledge, 2016). People's written accounts of nostalgic memories also frequently contain themes of appreciation for both the past and hopefulness for the future (Routledge, 2015). In short, nostalgia promotes the types of affective states that mobilize the self for action.
Critically, nostalgia-induced affective states promote relevant behavior. For instance, health optimism triggered by nostalgia is associated with increased intentions to exercise and eat well, as well as subsequent levels of physical activity (Kersten et al., 2016). Similarly, the social efficacy nostalgia engenders leads to increased social engagement (Abeyta et al., 2015). More broadly, when people experience nostalgia, they are subsequently more likely to engage in prosocial behavior (Stephan et al., 2014), including charitable giving (Zhou et al., 2012). Nostalgia doesn't just make people feel inspired. It drives them to act on their inspiration.
Future-Oriented Social Cognition
Arguably, the most compelling evidence that nostalgia is a future-oriented emotional experience is its effects on goal-related cognition, since goals are about the future. Nostalgia increases the importance people assign to relationship goals, intentions to pursue the goal of connecting with friends, and the desire to resolve a relationship problem (Abeyta et al., 2015). More broadly, nostalgia increases the motivation to pursue one's most important goal (Sedikides et al., 2017).
Given the social nature of nostalgia, its impact on goals may be strongest in the interpersonal domain. Relatedly, nostalgia's impact on social motivation is moderated by individual differences in attachment-related avoidance (Abeyta et al., 2019). For individuals who rely on relationships for psychological comfort (low attachment-related avoidance), nostalgia increases social goal pursuit. For those who do not rely on relationships for comfort (high attachment-related avoidance), nostalgia decreases social goal pursuit. In sum, nostalgia mobilizes the self, particularly the social self.
The Motivated Brain
The neuroscience of nostalgia remains limited. Nostalgia proneness is positively related to right-frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, an indicator avoidance motivation and negative emotions (Tullett et al., 2015). Although this evidence is correlational, and thus, we cannot determine causality from it, this finding is in line with past research suggesting that negative emotions and experiences, such as loneliness and meaninglessness, trigger nostalgia as a regulatory resource (e.g., Routledge et al., 2013). More recently, Bocincova et al. (2019) found that nostalgia reduced error related negativity (ERN; a neurological indicator of avoidance motivation) in response to making a mistake in a modified Flanker task, which is consistent with research indicating that nostalgia orients people away from avoidant and toward approach-related psychological states (Stephan et al., 2014). Notably, a preregistered follow-up study did not replicate these findings (FioRito et al., 2020). Further research is required to examine if, and how, nostalgia affects motivation as measured using social neuroscientific paradigms.
The Need For An Interpersonal Approach: Shared Nostalgia
Although previous research demonstrates that nostalgia is primarily focused on social relationships, almost no work has explored how nostalgia occurs in a social setting. Nostalgia likely frequently implicates social interaction. Indeed, up to 75 percent of conversations may include nostalgic content (Pasupathi et al., 2002; Fivush, 2008; Baron and Bluck, 2009; Beike et al., 2016). Therefore, future research should explore nostalgia as a shared experience. We define shared nostalgia as nostalgia transmitted to at least one other person or exchanged between two or more people. The nature of shared nostalgia needs to be determined. How often does this occur? With whom? What is the role of approach motivation in sharing nostalgic memories with and between others? What social and emotional benefits, if any, can be gained?
We posit that individuals share nostalgia for two purposes: to create and to maintain social connections. The future-oriented qualities of nostalgia may prompt an individual to share a nostalgic memory with an acquaintance to build closeness. Alternatively, those who discuss nostalgic memories with others may “bring online” a social approach motivation, increasing the extent to which the individuals connect. For instance, discussing a nostalgic childhood experience with a new acquaintance could promote self-disclosing behavior in both individuals. Does this boost a desire to deepen the relationship from acquaintances to friends? Moreover, people may discuss a nostalgic memory with others who also experienced in order to maintain the established intimacy. As an example, a couple reflecting together on their first date may feel intimate feelings toward one another. Does this, in turn, increase intentions to stay together?
Drawing From The Past For The Future
By definition, nostalgia is a past-focused affective experience. A growing body of evidence, however, documents the future-oriented nature of nostalgia. Specifically, people can reference their nostalgic past to remind themselves what it felt to be young (Abeyta and Routledge, 2016) and loved (e.g., Cheung et al., 2013), which, in turn, promotes future-oriented behavior, such as physically caring for oneself (Kersten et al., 2016), connecting with others (e.g., Abeyta et al., 2015), and pursuing goals (e.g., Sedikides et al., 2017). There are deviations from this process, however. For instance, Cheung et al. (2019) recently introduced the concept of anticipated nostalgia. This construct is unique in that it does not rely on the reflections of the past. Instead, anticipated nostalgia is nostalgia for the present and the future (e.g., “I anticipate I will feel nostalgic about my children's childhood in the future”). Critically, Cheung et al. (2019) found that anticipated nostalgia is related to deliberate savoring techniques, such as purchasing souvenirs and documenting moments with pictures. Thus, anticipated nostalgia could be considered a future-focused experience that promotes future-oriented behavior. When discussing the future-oriented nature of nostalgia, individual differences should be considered, as well; not everyone benefits from using nostalgia (e.g., attachment-related avoidance; Wildschut et al., 2010; Juhl et al., 2012; Abeyta et al., 2019). Future research should examine other instances in which nostalgia does not result in future-oriented behavior.
Taken together, when individuals engage in nostalgic reflection, they are not hiding in the past. They are accessing meaningful memories from the past in order to help them approach the future with purpose.
TF and CR contributed to the writing of the manuscript.
This publication was supported by an Institutional Development Award (IDeA) from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Grant no. 5P30 GM114748.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Abeyta, A. A., Nelson, T. A., and Routledge, C. (2019). The pushes and pulls of the past: The effects of attachment-related avoidance and nostalgia on approach-oriented social goals. Personal. Indiv. Diff. 149, 200–208. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2019.06.008
Abeyta, A. A., Routledge, C., and Juhl, J. (2015). Looking back to move forward: nostalgia as a psychological resource for promoting relationship goals and overcoming relationship challenges. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 109, 1029–1044. doi: 10.1037/pspi0000036
Bocincova, A., Nelson, T. A., Johnson, J. S., and Routledge, C. (2019). Experimentally induced nostalgia reduces the amplitude of the event-related negativity. Soc. Neurosci. 14, 631–634. doi: 10.1080/17470919.2019.1580612
Carver, C. S., and White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS Scales. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 67, 319–333. doi: 10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1689
Cheung, W.-Y., Sedikides, C., and Wildschut, T. (2016). Induced nostalgia increases optimism (via social-connectedness and self-esteem) among individuals high, but not low, in trait nostalgia. Personal. Individual Diff. 90, 283–288. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.028
Cheung, W.-Y., Wildschut, T., Sedikides, C., Hepper, E. G., Arndt, J., and Vingerhoets, A. J. (2013). Back to the future: nostalgia increases optimism. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 39, 1484–1496. doi: 10.1177/0146167213499187
Cheung, W. Y., Hepper, E. G., Reid, C. A., Green, J. D., Wildschut, T., and Sedikides, C. (2019). Anticipated nostalgia: looking forward to looking back. Cognition Emotion 2, 1–15. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2019.1649247
FioRito, T., Bocincova, A., Johnson, J. S., and Routledge, C. (2020). A Follow-Up Examination of Experimentally Induced Nostalgia Reducing ERN. Retrieved from: osf.io/6c3uz
Juhl, J., Sand, E. C., and Routledge, C. (2012). The effects of nostalgia and avoidant attachment on relationship satisfaction and romantic motives. J. Soc. Personal Relationships 29, 661–670. doi: 10.1177/0265407512443433
Kersten, M., Cox, C. R., and Enkevort, E. A. V. (2016). An exercise in nostalgia: nostalgia promotes health optimism and physical activity. Psychol. Health 31, 1166–1181. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2016.1185524
Pasupathi, M., Lucas, S., and Coombs, A. (2002). Conversational functions of autobiographical remembering: long-married couples talk about conflicts and pleasant topics. Discourse Processes 34, 163–192. doi: 10.1207/S15326950DP3402_3
Routledge, C., Arndt, J., Wildschut, T., Sedikides, C., Hart, C. M., Juhl, J., et al. (2011). The past makes the present meaningful: Nostalgia as an existential resource. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 101, 638–652. doi: 10.1037/a0024292
Sedikides, C., Cheung, W.-Y., Wildschut, T., Hepper, E. G., Baldursson, E., and Pedersen, B. (2017). Nostalgia motivates pursuit of important goals by increasing meaning in life. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 48, 209–216. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2318
Stephan, E., Wildschut, T., Sedikides, C., Zhou, X., He, W., Routledge, C., et al. (2014). The mnemonic mover: Nostalgia regulates avoidance and approach motivation. Emotion 14, 545–561. doi: 10.1037/a0035673
Tullett, A. M., Wildschut, T., Sedikides, C., and Inzlicht, M. (2015). Right-frontal cortical asymmetry predicts increased proneness to nostalgia. Psychophysiology 52, 990–996. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12438
Wildschut, T., Sedikides, C., Routledge, C., Arndt, J., and Cordaro, F. (2010). Nostalgia as a repository of social connectedness: the role of attachment-related avoidance. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 98, 573–586. doi: 10.1037/a0017597
Keywords: nostalgia, shared nostalgia, motivation, self-regulation, social cognition
Citation: FioRito TA and Routledge C (2020) Is Nostalgia a Past or Future-Oriented Experience? Affective, Behavioral, Social Cognitive, and Neuroscientific Evidence. Front. Psychol. 11:1133. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01133
Received: 26 March 2020; Accepted: 04 May 2020;
Published: 03 June 2020.
Edited by:Jeffrey D. Green, Virginia Commonwealth University, United States
Reviewed by:Krystine Irene Batcho, Le Moyne College, United States
Copyright © 2020 FioRito and Routledge. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
*Correspondence: Taylor A. FioRito, firstname.lastname@example.org