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Front. Plant Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00090

Stereoisomers of the Bacterial Volatile Compound 2,3-Butanediol Differently Elicit Systemic Defense Responses of Pepper Against Multiple Viruses in the Field

Hyun Gi Kong1, Teak Soo Shin2, Tae Hoon Kim2 and  Choong-Min Ryu1*
  • 1Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), South Korea
  • 2Farm Hannong Co., Ltd., South Korea

The volatile compound 2,3-butanediol, which is produced by certain strains of root-associated bacteria, consists of three stereoisomers, namely, two enantiomers (2R,3R- and 2S,3S-butanediol) and one meso compound (2R,3S-butanediol). The ability of 2,3-butanediol to induce plant resistance against pathogenic fungi and bacteria has been investigated; however, little is known about its effects on induced resistance against viruses in plants. To investigate the effects of 2,3-butanediol on plant systemic defense against viruses, we evaluated the disease control capacity of each of its three stereoisomers in pepper. Specifically, we investigated the optimal concentration of 2,3-butanediol to use for disease control against Cucumber mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus in the greenhouse and examined the effects of drench application of these compounds in the field. In the field trial, treatment with 2R,3R-butanediol and 2R,3S-butanediol significantly reduced the incidence of naturally occurring viruses compared with 2S,3S-butanediol and control treatments. In addition, 2R,3R-butanediol treatment induced the expression of plant defense marker genes in the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways to levels similar to those of the benzothiadiazole-treated positive control. This study reports the first field trial showing that specific stereoisomers of 2,3-butanediol trigger plant immunity against multiple viruses.

Keywords: Bacterial volatile compound, 2.3-butanediol, Plant virus disease, ISR, pepper

Received: 24 Nov 2017; Accepted: 16 Jan 2018.

Edited by:

Jesús Mercado-Blanco, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain

Reviewed by:

Aurélien Bailly, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Tomislav Cernava, Graz University of Technology, Austria  

Copyright: © 2018 Kong, Shin, Kim and Ryu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Choong-Min Ryu, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 111 Kwahangro Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-806, South Korea, cmryu@kribb.re.kr