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Front. Plant Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00455

Vitis vinifera L. fruit diversity to breed varieties anticipating climate changes

 Antoine Bigard1, 2,  Dargie T. Berhe2, 3,  Eleonora Maoddi1, Yannick Sire2, Jean-Michel Boursiquot1,  Hernan Ojeda2, 4,  Jean-Pierre Péros1, Agnes Doligez1, Charles Romieu1 and  Laurent Torregrosa1, 2*
  • 1AGAP, University of Montpellier 1, France
  • 2UE INRA de Pech-Rouge, Montpellier SupAgro, France
  • 3SNNPRS, Dilla University, Ethiopia
  • 4GBRC INRA de Vassal, Université de Montpellier, France

The wine industry is facing critical issues due to climate changes since production is established on very tight Genotype x Environment interaction bases. While, some cultivation practices may reduce adverse effects of abiotic stresses on the vines, e.g. the use of irrigation to mitigate drought, the deleterious impacts of warming on fruit development are difficult to manage. Elevated temperature alters grapevine fruit growth and composition, with a critical increase of the sugars/organic acids ratio. Select grapes with improved metabolite balances to offset high temperature effects is a valuable option to sustain viticulture. Unfortunately, the lack of knowledge about the genetic diversity for fruit traits impacted by temperature impairs the design of breeding programs. This study aimed to assess the variation in berry volume, and main sugars and organic acids amounts in genetic resources. Fruit phenotyping focused on two critical stages of development: the end of green lag phase when organic acidity reaches its maximum, and the ripe stage when sugar unloading and water uptake stop. For that purpose, we studied a panel of 33 genotypes, including 12 grapevine varieties and 21 microvine offspring. To determine the date of sampling for each critical stage, fruit texture and growth were carefully monitored. Analyses at both stages revealed large phenotypic variation for malic and tartaric acids, as well as for sugars and berry size. At ripe stage, fruit fresh weight ranged from 1.04 to 5.25 g and sugar concentration from 751 to 1353 mmol.L-1. The content in organic acids varied both in quantity (from 80 to 361 meq.L-1) and in composition, with malic to tartaric acid ratio ranging from 0.13 to 3.62. At the inter-genotypic level, data showed no link between berry growth and osmoticum accumulation per fruit unit, suggesting that berry water uptake is not dependent only on fruit osmotic potential. Diversity among varieties for berry size, sugar accumulation and malic to tartaric acid ratio could be exploited through cross breeding. This provides interesting prospects for improving grapevine to mitigate some adverse effects of climate warming on grapevine fruit volume and quality.

Keywords: climate warming, fruit growth, Sugars, Organic acids, Genetics, grapevine, Vitis vinifera

Received: 13 Jan 2018; Accepted: 22 Mar 2018.

Edited by:

Eric Gomès, Université de Bordeaux, France

Reviewed by:

Christian D. Kappel, University of Potsdam, Germany
Sara Zenoni, Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Italy  

Copyright: © 2018 Bigard, Berhe, Maoddi, Sire, Boursiquot, Ojeda, Péros, Doligez, Romieu and Torregrosa. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Laurent Torregrosa, University of Montpellier 1, AGAP, Montpellier, France, laurent.torregrosa@supagro.fr