Original Research ARTICLE
Nitrogen distribution in annual organs of ‘Italia’ table grape vines and in summer and winter pruning materials
- 1Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti (DiSSPA), Università degli Studi di Bari, Italy
Little information is available about either nitrogen (N) content/concentration in table grape vines. The knowledge about N accumulated by the vine organs during the season could support sustainable fertilization programs for table grape vineyards. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the N content in different annual organs, in summer and winter pruning materials, clusters at harvest and fallen leaves at post-harvest of table grape vines in order to verify the vine annual N requirements to be used for sustainable N fertilization schedules.
Biomass and nitrogen were analyzed at six phenological growth stages (flowering, berry-set, berry growth, veraison, ripening, and harvest) from 2012 to 2015. N concentration (>40 g/kg d.w.) was highest in the leaves of the secondary shoots at flowering, whereas values >30 g/kg were measured in the leaves of the primary shoots. N concentration in the clusters at harvest was 5.3-7.6 g/kg with an accumulation of 18.6-25.4 g/vine in the 3 years. The decrease of N content in the primary leaves after flowering indicated a remobilization towards the clusters, which acted as a stronger sink. Later in the season (veraison-ripening), leaves translocated N to permanent organs such as primary stems. Pruning wood and fallen leaves accounted for the largest N removal from the vineyard after clusters, 6.0-7.9 and 9.2-10.2 g/vine, respectively. With regards of the vine annual biomass, the growth followed a sigmoidal model reaching 7300-7500 g of d.w at harvest. Vine leaf area reached the highest surface at veraison (17-21 m2), taking into account both primary and secondary leaves. Vines accumulated 35 g/vine of N at harvest, not considering the N removed with the intense summer pruning practices (7 g/vine) and the fraction mobilized towards the storage organs (10-15 g/vine). The overall N required by the vine was around 50-55 g/vine, which corresponds to 80 kg of N/ha in a vineyard with 1500 vines and a yield of 40 t/ha. Summer and winter pruning practices removed 29-31 g/vine of N which will be partly available (to be considered in the fertilization schedule) for the vine in the successive years if incorporated and mineralized in the
Keywords: Table grape, Italia, Nitrogen, annual organs, Primary leaves, Cluster, Pruning wood, Summer pruning
Received: 16 Apr 2018;
Accepted: 29 Aug 2018.
Edited by:Paolo Inglese, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy
Reviewed by:Bartolomeo Dichio, University of Basilicata, Italy
Abraham J. Escobar-Gutiérrez, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), France
Copyright: © 2018 Ferrara, Malerba, Matarrese, Mondelli and Mazzeo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: PhD. Giuseppe Ferrara, Università degli Studi di Bari, Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti (DiSSPA), Bari, Italy, email@example.com