Original Research ARTICLE
The cell wall-derived xyloglucan is a new DAMP triggering plant immunity in Vitis vinifera and Arabidopsis thaliana.
- 1INRA UMR1347 Agroécologie, France
- 2Elicityl, France
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous molecules that can activate the plant innate immunity. DAMPs can derive from the plant cell wall, which is composed of a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin polysaccharides. Fragments of pectin, called oligogalacturonides (OG), can be released after wounding or by pathogen-encoded cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) such as polygalacturonases (PGs). OG are known to induce innate immune responses, including the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), production of H2O2, defense gene activation and callose deposition. Thus we hypothesized that xyloglucans (Xh), derived from the plant cell wall hemicellulose, could also act as an endogenous elicitor and trigger a signaling cascade similar to OG. Our results indicate that purified Xh elicit MAPK activation and immune gene expression in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trigger induced resistance against necrotrophic (Botrytis cinerea) or biotrophic (Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis) pathogens. Xh also induce resveratrol production in grapevine cell suspension and callose deposition in Arabidopsis which depends on the callose synthase PMR4. In addition, we characterized some signaling components of Xh-induced immunity using Arabidopsis mutants. Our data suggest that Xh-induced resistance against B. cinerea is dependent on the phytoalexin, salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene pathways.
Keywords: DAMP-triggered immunity, induced resistance, MAPK (Mitogen-activated protein kinase), Botrytis cinerea, elicitor
Received: 17 Aug 2018;
Accepted: 06 Nov 2018.
Edited by:Vincenzo Lionetti, La Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Reviewed by:Manuel Benedetti, Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Italy
Claudio Moser, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy
Copyright: © 2018 Claverie, Balacey, Lemaître-Guillier, Brulé, Granet, Noirot, Daire, Héloir, Darblade and Poinssot. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Benoît Poinssot, INRA UMR1347 Agroécologie, Dijon, France, email@example.com