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Front. Plant Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00033

Winter is coming: genetic analyses of the bud break date locus reveal candidate genes from the cold perception pathway to dormancy release in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)

 Yohanna Miotto1, Carolina Tessele1, Ana Beatriz C. Czermainski2,  Diogo D. Porto2, 3,  Vítor D. Falavigna1, 2, 4, Tiago Sartor1, 2,  Carla A. Delatorre1,  Sérgio A. Alencar5,  Orzenil B. Silva-Junior6, Roberto Togawa6, Marcos M. Costa6,  Georgios J. Pappas7,  Priscila Grynberg6, Paulo Ricardo D. Oliveira2, Marcus V. Kvitschal8, Frederico Denardi8 and  Luis Fernando Revers1, 2*
  • 1Graduate Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil
  • 2Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Brazil
  • 3Embrapa Semiárido, Brazil
  • 4INRA UMR Amélioration génétique et adaptation des plantes méditerranéennes et tropicales, France
  • 5Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Genômicas e Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brazil
  • 6Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Brazil
  • 7Department of Cell Biology, Universidade de Brasília, Brazil
  • 8Estação Experimental de Caçador, Caçador, Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina, Brazil

Chilling requirement for bud dormancy completion determines the time of bud break in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). The molecular control of bud dormancy is highly heritable, suggesting a strong genetic control of the trait. An available Infinium II SNP platform for genotyping containing 8,788 single nucleotide polymorphic markers was employed, and linkage maps were constructed in a F1 cross from the low chilling requirement cv. M13/91 and the moderate chilling requirement cv. Fred Hough. These maps were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for bud break date as a trait related to dormancy release. A major QTL for bud break was detected at the beginning of linkage group (LG) 9. This QTL remained stable during seven seasons in two different growing sites. To increase mapping efficiency in detecting contributing genes underlying this QTL, 182 additional SNP markers located at the locus for bud break were used. Combining linkage mapping and structural characterization of the region, the high proportion of the phenotypic variance in the trait explained by the QTL is related to the coincident positioning of Arabidopsis orthologues for ICE1, FLC and PRE1 protein-coding genes. The proximity of these genes from the most explanatory markers of this QTL for bud break suggests potential genetic additive effects, reinforcing the hypothesis of inter-dependent mechanisms controlling dormancy induction and release in apple trees.

Keywords: apple, Bud Dormancy, Chilling requirement, linkage mapping, MdoFLC, MdoICE1, MdoPRE1

Received: 16 Jul 2018; Accepted: 10 Jan 2019.

Edited by:

Henryk Flachowsky, Julius Kühn-Institut, Germany

Reviewed by:

Charles L. Guy, University of Florida, United States
Andreas Peil, Institut für Züchtungsforschung an Obstarten, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen, Julius Kühn-Institut (JKI), Germany  

Copyright: © 2019 Miotto, Tessele, Czermainski, Porto, Falavigna, Sartor, Delatorre, Alencar, Silva-Junior, Togawa, Costa, Pappas, Grynberg, Oliveira, Kvitschal, Denardi and Revers. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Luis Fernando Revers, Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Bento Goncalves, Brazil, luis.revers@embrapa.br