Original Research ARTICLE
Grape Flavonoid Evolution and Composition under Altered Light and Temperature Conditions in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.)
- 1Stellenbosch University, South Africa
- 2Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, United States
- 3Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Higher Institute of Agronomy, University of Lisbon, Portugal
- 4Montpellier SupAgro, France
The evolution of flavan-3-ols under altered temperature and light conditions in the fruit zone were followed in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes during ripening. The study was conducted over two consecutive seasons 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 comprising two main treatments in which the light quantity was manipulated in the bunch zone: 1) standard (STD) with no lateral shoot or leaf removal and 2) Leaf Removal West (LRW) treatment with leaf removal on the western side of the bunch zone. Furthermore, the light quality was altered by installing ultra-violet-B suppressing sheets within the bunch zone in both seasons. Tannin evolution was dependent on the prevailing light quality/quantity and temperatures during berry development in a particular season. Grape seed tannin accumulation coincided with seed development and commenced at the early stages of berry development. Seed proanthocyanidin composition were not influenced by the treatments. The largest impact on proanthocyanidin accumulation and structure in the skin was due to seasonal variations highlighting the complex interaction between light quality and/or quantity across the two growing seasons and eventually the complex interaction with temperature. Flavonol accumulation was significantly influenced by the light quality, which is known to be the main abiotic driver of flavonol biosynthesis regulation. Anthocyanin concentration and content were largely dependent on the temperature and light quality in a particular season. Anthocyanin composition was altered by the season rather than the treatment.
Keywords: Cabernet Sauvignon, Ultra-violet (UV), Photosynthetic active radiation - PAR, temperature, tannin
Received: 06 Dec 2018;
Accepted: 06 Aug 2019.
Edited by:Antonella Castagna, Department of Agricultural, Food and Agri-Environmental Sciences, University of Pisa, Italy
Reviewed by:Vesna Rastija, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Osijek, Croatia
Artur Conde, University of Minho, Portugal
Copyright: © 2019 Blancquart, Oberholster, Ricardo-da-Silva and Deloire. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Erna H. Blancquart, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, email@example.com