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Front. Plant Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01073

Chemical composition of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit: nutritional and phytochemical compounds

  • 1University of Antioquia, Colombia
  • 2Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Mexico
  • 3University of Quindío, Colombia

Mango fruit has a high nutritional value and health benefits due to important components. The present manuscript is a comprehensive update on the composition of mango fruit, including nutritional and phytochemical compounds, and the changes of these during development and postharvest. Mango components can be grouped into macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, lipids, fatty and organic acids); micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), and phytochemicals (phenolic, polyphenol, pigments, and volatile constituents). Mango fruit also contains structural carbohydrates such as pectins and cellulose. The major amino acids include lysine, leucine, cysteine, valine, arginine, phenylalanine, and methionine. The lipid composition increases during ripening, particularly the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. The most important pigments of mango fruit include chlorophylls (a and b) and carotenoids. The most important organic acids include malic and citric acids and they confer the fruit acidity. The volatile constituents are a heterogeneous group with different chemical functions that contribute to the aromatic profile of the fruit. During development and maturity stages occurs important biochemical, physiological and structural changes affecting mainly the nutritional and phytochemical composition, producing softening, modifying aroma, flavor, and antioxidant capacity. In addition, postharvest handling practices influence total content of carotenoids, phenolic compounds, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity and organoleptic properties.

Keywords: Mangifera Indica, Mango, maturation, postharvest, nutrition, Health, Antioxidants, Polyphenols, Carotenoids

Received: 24 Jan 2019; Accepted: 07 Aug 2019.

Edited by:

Alberto Battistelli, Italian National Research Council (CNR), Italy

Reviewed by:

Melissa H. Mageroy, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), Norway
Ericsson Coy-Barrera, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Colombia  

Copyright: © 2019 Maldonado, Yahia, Bedoya, Landazuri, Loango, Aguillon, Restrepo and Guerrero. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Maria E. Maldonado, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, maria.maldonado@udea.edu.co