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Front. Plant Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01089

Exogenous Glutathione Increases Arsenic Translocation into Shoots and Alleviates Arsenic-induced Oxidative Stress by Sustaining Ascorbate-Glutathione Homeostasis in Rice Seedlings

 Ha-il Jung1*, Myung-Suk Kong1,  Bok-Rye Lee2, Tae-Hwan Kim2, Mi-Jin Chae1,  Jwa-Kyung Sung1, Chang-Hoon Lee1, Eun-Jin Lee1, Goo-Bok Jung1 and Yoo-Hak Kim1*
  • 1Division of Soil and Fertilizer, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, South Korea
  • 2College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, South Korea

Glutathione (GSH) plays diverse roles in the physiological processes, stress defense, growth, and development of plants. This study investigated the effects of exogenous GSH on the biochemical responses of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant levels in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Dasan) seedlings under arsenic (As) stress. As treatment inhibited the growth; increased the level of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde; and enhanced the uptake of As by the roots and shoots in hydroponically grown 14-day old seedlings. Furthermore, it reduced GSH content and GSH redox ratios, which have been correlated with the decrease in ascorbate (AsA) redox state. Whereas, the exogenous application of GSH in As-treated seedlings reduced As-induced oxidative stress, improved antioxidant defense systems by maintaining antioxidant and/or redox enzymes homeostasis and increased the AsA and GSH contents. The GSH application also increased the As translocation from the roots to the shoots. These results indicated that the increase in GSH redox state can be linked to an increase in the AsA redox ratio via the induction of the AsA-GSH cycle. Therefore, the results suggest that exogenous GSH application should be a promising approach to enhance As-stress resistance in rice plants.

Keywords: arsenic toxicity, ascorbate-glutathione cycle, Glutathione, Reactive Oxygen Species, rice

Received: 31 Aug 2018; Accepted: 09 Aug 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Jung, Kong, Lee, Kim, Chae, Sung, Lee, Lee, Jung and Kim. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence:
PhD. Ha-il Jung, Division of Soil and Fertilizer, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju, South Korea, hj255@korea.kr
PhD. Yoo-Hak Kim, Division of Soil and Fertilizer, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju, South Korea, kim.yoohak@korea.kr