Original Research ARTICLE
Pathogens and Molds Affecting Production and Quality of Cannabis sativa L.
- 1Simon Fraser University, Canada
Plant pathogens infecting marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) plants reduce growth of the crop by affecting the roots, crown and foliage. In addition, fungi (molds) that colonize the inflorescences (buds) during development or after harvest, and which colonize internal tissues as endophytes, can reduce product quality. The pathogens and molds that affect C. sativa grown hydroponically indoors (in environmentally controlled growth rooms and greenhouses) and field-grown plants were studied over multiple years of sampling. A PCR-based assay using primers for the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA confirmed identity of the cultures. Root-infecting pathogens included Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. brachygibbosum, Pythium dissotocum, P. myriotylum and P. aphanidermatum, which caused root browning, discoloration of the crown and pith tissues, stunting and yellowing of plants, and in some instances, plant death. On the foliage, powdery mildew, caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum, was the major pathogen observed. On inflorescences, penicillium bud rot (caused by P. olsonii and P. copticola), botrytis bud rot (B. cinerea) and fusarium bud rot (F. solani, F. oxysporum) were present to varying extents. Endophytic fungi present in crown, stem and petiole tissues included soil-colonizing and cellulolytic fungi, such as species of Chaetomium, Trametes, Trichoderma, Penicillium and Fusarium. Analysis of air samples in indoor growing environments revealed that species of Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Beauvaria, and Trichoderma were present. The latter two species were the result of the application of biocontrol products for control of insects and diseases, respectively. Fungal communities present in unpasteurized coconut fibre (coco) growing medium are potential sources of mold contamination on cannabis plants. Swabs taken from greenhouse-grown and indoor buds pre- and post-harvest revealed the presence of Cladosporium and up to five species of Penicillium, as well as low levels of Alternaria species. Mechanical trimming of buds caused an increase in the frequency of Penicilllium species, presumably by providing entry points through wounds or spreading endophytes from pith tissues. Aerial distribution of pathogen inoculum and mold spores and dissemination through vegetative propagation, are important methods of spread, and entry through wound sites on roots, stems and bud tissues facilitates pathogen establishment on cannabis plants.
Keywords: Diseases, plant pathogens, post-harvest molds, Fungi, root infection
Received: 27 Nov 2018;
Accepted: 14 Aug 2019.
Edited by:Donald L. Smith, McGill University, Canada
Reviewed by:Benedetta Mattei, University of L'Aquila, Italy
David L. Joly, Université de Moncton, Canada
Copyright: © 2019 Punja, Collyer, Scott, Lung, Holmes and Sutton. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Zamir Punja, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada, email@example.com