Insight into the prospects for the improvement of seed starch in legume seeds – A review
- 1College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, South Korea
In addition to proteins and/or oils, mature seeds of most legume crops contain important carbohydrate components, including starches and sugars. Starch is also an essential nutritional component of human and animal diets, and has various food and non-food industrial applications. Starch is a primary insoluble polymeric carbohydrate produced by higher plants, and consists of amylopectin, and amylose as a major fraction. Legume seeds are not only an affordable source of protein, but also the starch, which has an advantage of being resistant starch compared to cereal, root and tuber starch. For these reasons, legume seeds form a good source of resistant starch-rich healthy food with a high protein content, and can be utilized in various food applications. The genetics and molecular details of starch and other carbohydrate contents are well-studied in cereal crops, but have received little attention in legumes. In order to improve legume starch content, quality and quantity, it is necessary to understand the genetic and molecular factors regulating carbohydrate metabolism in legume crops. In this review, we assessed the current literature reporting the genetic and molecular basis of legume carbohydrate components, primarily focused on seed starch contents. We provided an overview of starch biosynthesis in the heterotrophic organs, the chemical composition of major consumable legumes, the factors influencing starch digestibility, and advances in the genetic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic studies in important legume crops. Further, we discussed breeding and biotechnological approaches for the improvement of the starch composition in major legume crops. The information reviewed in this study will be helpful in facilitating the food and non-food applications of legume starch and provide economic benefits to farmers and industries.
Keywords: Legumes (Leguminosae or Fabaceae), Starch, Carbohybride, Food, Breeding
Received: 14 Mar 2019;
Accepted: 03 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Tayade, Kulkarni, Jo, Song and Lee. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Dr. Krishnanand P. Kulkarni, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, North Gyeongsang, South Korea, firstname.lastname@example.org
Prof. Jeong-Dong Lee, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, North Gyeongsang, South Korea, email@example.com