Impact Factor 4.106 | CiteScore 4.47
More on impact ›

Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Plant Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01221

Transcriptome-enabled network inference revealed the GmCOL1 feed-forward loop and its roles in photoperiodic flowering of soybean

 Faqiang Wu1,  Xiaohan K. Kang2,  Minglei Wang2,  Waseem Haider3, William B. Price2, Bruce Hajek2 and  Yoshie Hanzawa1*
  • 1California State University, Northridge, United States
  • 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States
  • 3COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan

Photoperiodic flowering, a plant response to seasonal photoperiod changes in the control of reproductive transition, is an important agronomic trait that has been a central target of crop domestication and modern breeding programs. However, our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of photoperiodic flowering regulation in crop species is lagging behind. To better understand the regulatory gene networks controlling photoperiodic flowering of soybeans, we elucidated global gene expression patterns under different photoperiod regimes using the near isogenic lines (NILs) of maturity loci (E loci). Transcriptome signatures identified unique roles of the E loci in photoperiodic flowering and a set of genes controlled by these loci. To elucidate the regulatory gene networks underlying photoperiodic flowering regulation, we developed the network inference algorithmic package CausNet that integrates sparse linear regression and Granger causality heuristics, as well as Gaussian approximation of bootstrapping to provide reliability scores for predicted regulatory interactions. Using the transcriptome data, CausNet inferred regulatory interactions among soybean flowering genes. Comparison with literature provided several inferred regulatory interactions with empirical verification. We further confirmed the inferred regulatory roles of the flowering suppressors GmCOL1a and GmCOL1b using GmCOL1 RNAi transgenic soybean plants. Combinations of the alleles of GmCOL1 and the major maturity locus E1 demonstrated positive interaction between these genes, leading to enhanced suppression of flowering transition. Our work provides novel insights and testable hypotheses in the complex molecular mechanisms of photoperiodic flowering control in soybean and lays a framework for de novo prediction of biological networks controlling important agronomic traits in crops.

Keywords: photoperiodic flowering, Transcriptome, Network Inference, Feedforward loop, Glycine max

Received: 21 Jun 2019; Accepted: 04 Sep 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Wu, Kang, Wang, Haider, Price, Hajek and Hanzawa. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Yoshie Hanzawa, California State University, Northridge, Los Angeles, 91330, California, United States,