Emergent Ascomycetes in viticulture: an interdisciplinary overview
- 1Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy
- 2University of Udine, Italy
- 3University of Milan, Italy
- 4Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil
- 5Institut für Rebenzüchtung, Julius Kühn-Institut, Germany
The reduction of pesticide usage is a current imperative and the implementation of sus-tainable viticulture is an urgent necessity. A potential solution which is being increasingly adopt-ed is offered by the use of grapevine cultivars resistant to its main pathogenic threats. This how-ever has contributed to changes in defense strategies resulting in the occurrence of secondary diseases, which were previously controlled. Concomitantly, the ongoing climate crisis is contrib-uting to destabilize the increasingly dynamic viticultural context.
In this review, we explore the available knowledge on three Ascomycetes which are con-sidered emergent and causal agents of powdery mildew, black rot and anthracnose. We also aim to provide a survey on methods for phenotyping disease symptoms in fields, greenhouse and lab conditions, and for disease control underlying the insurgence of pathogen resistance to fungicide. Thus, we discuss fungal genetic variability, highlighting the usage and development of molecular markers and barcoding, coupled with genome sequencing. Moreover, we extensively report on the current knowledge available on grapevine-Ascomycete interactions, as well as the mecha-nisms developed by the host to counteract the attack. Indeed, to better understand these re-sistance mechanisms, it is relevant to identify pathogen effectors which are involved in the infec-tion process and how grapevine resistance genes function and impact the downstream cascade.
Dealing with such a wealth of information on both pathogens and the host, the horizon is now represented by multidisciplinary approaches, combining traditional and innovative methods of cultivation. This will support the translation from theory to practice, in an attempt to under-stand biology very deeply and manage the spread of these Ascomycetes.
Keywords: Anthracnose, Black rot, disease symptom phenotyping, genetic diversity, grapevine, powdery mildew, Resistance loci, Vitis spp
Received: 13 Jun 2019;
Accepted: 09 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Pirrello, Mizzotti, Tomazetti, Colombo, Bettinelli, Prodorutti, Peressotti, Zulini, Angeli, Stefanini, Masiero, Welter, Hausmann and Vezzulli. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Silvia Vezzulli, Fondazione Edmund Mach, San Michele all'Adige, Italy, email@example.com