Original Research ARTICLE
The interplay between water limitation, dhurrin, and nitrate in the low-cyanogenic sorghum mutant adult cyanide deficient class 1
- 1School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Monash University, Australia
- 2Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
- 3Australian Plant Phenomics Facility, CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia
- 4School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Australia
Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench produces the nitrogen-containing natural product dhurrin that provides chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens via the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. Drought can increase dhurrin in shoot tissues to concentrations toxic to livestock. As dhurrin is also a remobilizable store of reduced nitrogen and plays a role in stress mitigation, reductions in dhurrin may come at a cost to plant growth and stress tolerance. Here, we investigated the response to an extended period of water limitation in a unique EMS-mutant adult cyanide deficient class 1 (acdc1) that has a low dhurrin content in the leaves of mature plants. A mutant sibling line was included to assess the impact of unknown background mutations. Plants were grown under three watering regimes using a gravimetric platform, with growth parameters and dhurrin and nitrate concentrations assessed over four successive harvests. Tissue type was an important determinant of dhurrin and nitrate concentrations, with the response to water limitation differing between above and below ground tissues. Water limitation increased dhurrin concentration in the acdc1 shoots to the same extent as in wild-type plants and no growth advantage or disadvantage between the lines was observed. Lower dhurrin concentrations in the acdc1 leaf tissue when fully watered correlated with an increase in nitrate content in the shoot and roots of the mutant. In targeted breeding efforts to down-regulate dhurrin concentration, parallel effects on the level of stored nitrates should be considered in all vegetative tissues of this important forage crop to avoid potential toxic effects.
Keywords: Cyanogenesis, cyanogenic glucosides, Dhurrin, Resource Allocation, nitrate, specialized metabolite, drought
Received: 11 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 21 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Rosati, Blomstedt, Møller, Garnett and Gleadow. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Ros Gleadow, Monash University, School of Biological Sciences, Melbourne, 3800, Victoria, Australia, firstname.lastname@example.org