Original Research ARTICLE
Deep Learning-Based Phenotyping System with Glocal Description of Plant Anomalies and Symptoms
- 1Department of Electronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Chonbuk National University, South Korea
- 2Department of Computer Engineering, Mokpo National University, South Korea
- 3School of Computer Science and Technology, Tianjin University, China
Recent advances in Deep Neural Networks have allowed the development of efficient and automated diagnosis systems for plant anomalies recognition. Although existing methods have shown promising results, they present several limitations to provide an appropriate characterization of the problem, especially in real-field scenarios. To address this limitation, we propose an approach that besides being able to efficiently detect and localize plant anomalies, allows to generate more detailed information about their symptoms and interactions with the scene, by combining visual object recognition and language generation. It uses an image as input and generates a diagnosis result that shows the location of anomalies and sentences describing the symptoms as output. Our framework is divided into two main parts: First, a detector obtains a set of region features that contain the anomalies using a Region-based Deep Neural Network. Second, a language generator takes the features of the detector as input and generates descriptive sentences with details of the symptoms using Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM). Our loss metric allows the system to be trained end-to-end from the object detector to the language generator. Finally, the system outputs a set of bounding boxes along with the sentences that describe their symptoms using a glocal criteria into two different ways: a set of specific descriptions of the anomalies detected in the plant and an abstract description that provides general information about the scene. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach in the challenging tomato diseases and pests recognition task. We further show that our approach achieves a mean Average Precision (mAP) of 92.5% in our newly created Tomato Plant Anomalies Description Dataset. Our objective evaluation allows users to understand the relationships between pathologies and their evolution throughout their stage of infection, location in the plant, symptoms, etc. Our work introduces a cost-efficient tool that provides farmers with a technology that facilitates proper handling of crops.
Keywords: plant anomalies, glocal description, deep learning, phenotyping, user-friendly information
Received: 18 Mar 2019;
Accepted: 23 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Fuentes, Yoon and Park. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Dong Sun Park, School of Computer Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China, email@example.com